What You Need to Know about Wuhan virus – 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)

By now, we have all heard about the outbreak of a new virus in China that has infected more than 600 people and claimed at least 17 lives, while spreading to other countries around the world. As of today (24th Jan), Singapore has three confirmed cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), also known as the Wuhan virus. Other countries which have confirmed cases include Japan, Korea, Thailand, the United States, Taiwan, Saudi Arabia and Vietnam. Disease modeling experts from Imperial College, London suggest that case numbers reported by China are conservative, issuing a report on Wednesday (22nd Jan) stating that 4000 people could currently be infected.

Its emergence on our shores has fueled fears of a deadly epidemic reminiscent of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003, H1N1 influenza in 2009, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. 

Here’s what you need to know about WuHan Virus:

What is the WuHan Virus and how did it happen?

The Wuhan virus belongs to a family of viruses known as coronavirus, which include SARS and MERS. These viruses, named for the crown-like spikes on their surfaces, infect mostly bats, pigs and small mammals. But they mutate easily and can spread from animals to humans, and from one human to another.

The outbreak is understood to have originated in December in Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market in Wuhan, the largest city in central China with a population of 11 million people. It is thought that wild animals are the source of the virus. Chinese scientists believe that the virus might have jumped from bats to snakes, which were then sold in the market, and subsequently transmitted to humans. 

How is the WuHan Virus spread?

The WuHan virus is believed to spread much like the common flu does – by droplet and contact, for example coughing, kissing or saliva contact. For now, virologists say that the Wuhan virus is likely not as infectious as the SARS virus, with a current reported 2% death rate. But there are concerns that the virus could further mutate to become more lethal.

What are the symptoms and when do you suspect that you have it?

Seek medical help or go to A&E immediately if:

  1. You have fever OR cough OR upper respiratory symptoms OR breathlessness, and
  2. You have travelled from mainland China within the past 14 days, or
  3. You have visited a hospital in mainland China 14 days before onset of illness, or
  4. You have had close contact with a confirmed or suspected case of Wuhan virus

Are there drugs or vaccines to treat or prevent Wuhan virus?

There is no vaccine to protect against coronaviruses. There is also no specific treatment to cure illnesses caused by coronaviruses. Patients receive supportive treatment at hospitals and generally recover on their own after some time. 

You should consider getting a flu vaccine if you are travelling to places where there are confirmed or suspected cases to prevent you from contracting influenza symptoms that may mislead screening authorities at temperature checkpoints.

What can I do to protect myself against the WuHan Virus?

  1. Wear a surgical mask if you have flu-like respiratory symptoms 
  2. Even if you have no symptoms, you can wear a surgical mask if you are going to be going out in public and having person-to-person contact
  3. It is advised that surgical masks will suffice and there is no need to use N95 masks
  4. Take the same protective measures you would take against the flu: wash your hands frequently with soap, cover your mouth with tissue paper or your hands when coughing or sneezing, and stay away from people who are sick
  5. See a doctor if you feel unwell

Should I cancel my trip to China?

According to the latest travel advisory issued on Thursday (23rd Jan) by the Ministry of Health (MOH), Singaporeans should avoid travelling to Wuhan. China has imposed a travel halt in Wuhan as all flights out of the city have been cancelled and trains, buses and ferries suspended.

MOH reminds the public to continue to exercise caution and pay close attention to personal hygiene when travelling to the rest of China. MOH advises that all travellers should monitor their health closely for two weeks upon return to Singapore and seek medical attention promptly if they feel unwell, and also inform their doctor of their travel history.


According to the World Health Organization, the Wuhan coronavirus is an emergency in China but is not yet a public health emergency of global concern. However, as the situation is rapidly evolving, all of us should continue to stay abreast with the latest updates and news reports. 

Stay safe!
[This article is written on 23rd January 2020]

武汉病毒知多少?- 新型冠状病毒
中文版: https://www.dtapclinic.com/articles/武汉病毒知多少?-新型冠状病毒/

Saxendar Weight Loss

What is Saxenda?

Saxenda is the brand name for a prescription-only, injectable medication known as Liraglutide. It is a medication approved for weight management as an adjunct to diet and exercise. Liraglutide belongs to a group of medications known as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 receptor agonist), also known as incretin mimetics. Saxenda is very similar to a GLP-1, a hormone that occurs naturally in the body which is released in response to food intake and acts as a physiological regulator of appetite and digestion.

GLP-1 that is produced by our body is rapidly broken down, resulting in a short half life of less than 2 minutes. Saxenda mimics GLP-1, but is much longer lasting, with a half life of about 13 hours when injected. Because of its long half life, it can act on the GLP-1 receptor for longer, exerting its physiological effects.

GLP-1 receptors can be found in several organs, including the brain, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, heart, vasculature and kidneys. Saxenda works by binding to the receptors in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in the brain, where it stimulates satiety and inhibits hunger neurons. Because of this, you eat less, leading to weight loss.

What is the use of Saxenda?

If you are obese, or overweight with weight-related medical problems (such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or type 2 diabetes), this medication can help with weight loss, and keeping the weight off. Saxenda is meant to be used alongside diet control and exercise.

A study published in 2017 was conducted with 3731 patients followed up over 56 weeks. The patients either had a BMI of 30 or more without diabetes, or a BMI of 27 or more with at least one weight related-medical problem. These patients were split into two groups. Both groups were told to control their diet and exercise.

One group was given Saxenda and the other group was given a placebo. 1 of 3 patients treated with Saxenda achieved weight loss of more than 10%. Patients treated with Saxenda who completed the trial achieved a mean weight loss of 9.2% and kept the weight off for the one year follow up. Patients also experienced multiple improvements in cardiometabolic risk factors. 

How to use Saxenda?

Saxenda is an injectable medicine usually given once per day. It is injected under the skin at any time of the day (usually in the morning), with or without a meal. There are a variety of places you can inject, but most commonly, it is injected into the skin around the abdomen. It comes in a prefilled injection pen with disposable needles. The doctor will teach you exactly how to inject this medication, and to use a different spot to inject each time.

How much does Saxenda Cost?

$120.00 per pen.

Who is suitable for use of Saxenda?

You are suitable if you are

  • overweight (BMI ≥27) with weight-related medical problems (e.g. high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or type 2 diabetes)
  • obese (BMI ≥30) with or without weight-related medical problems

Who should not use Saxenda?

If you are currently on insulin for treatment of Diabetes, Saxenda may not be suitable for you. The safety of Saxenda has not been studied when taken with other prescription, over-the-counter, or herbal weight-loss product. It is not known if Saxenda can be used safely in people who have had pancreatitis.

Saxenda is not recommended for use in children. The safety of Saxenda has not been evaluated in the specific treatment of Type 2 Diabetes (even though another medication known as Victoza has the same active ingredient).

Are there any side effects when using Saxenda?

The most common side effect of Saxenda are gastrointestinal and can include nausea, diarrhoea, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain and flatulence. Some patients may get headaches, low blood sugar, dizziness, fatigue or changes in taste as well. It is generally well tolerated and doctors will gradually increase the dose over a few weeks to minimize risk of side effects

What are other weight-loss treatment options?

Diet control and exercise are the mainstays of treatment for weight loss. Even Saxenda is meant to be used as an adjunct to diet control and exercise for weight loss. There are other medications to suppress appetite and decrease absorption of fat or carbohydrates from the gut as well. You can find more information from this page https://www.dtapclinic.com/family-medicine/weight-loss-treatment/

What are the pros and cons of Saxenda as compared to other treatment options?

The main drawback is that Saxenda is an injectable medication. Most other weight loss medications are in the form of oral tablets. Having said that, we know that Saxenda is a powerful tool in weight management.

Discuss with your doctor about the suitability of the medications for you. If you are interested to find out more about Weight Loss Treatmentsplease call our Clinics or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com for an appointment with our doctors.

Where To Buy Nicorette Gum In Singapore

Quitting smoking can be very difficult. This is because the nicotine found in cigarettes is highly addictive.

When smokers stop smoking, their bodies crave the nicotine and this leads to many uncomfortable symptoms including:

  1. Irritability and/or depression
  2. Tingling in hands and feet
  3. Nausea and tummy cramping
  4. Cold sweats
  5. Sore throat and coughing
  6. Difficulty sleeping
  7. Difficulty concentrating
  8. Anxiety
  9. Weight gain

READ: Tobacco Past & Present

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT)

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) has been shown to be an effective adjunct to help people quit smoking. NRT is a safe way to deliver nicotine to the body in place of smoking cigarettes. It therefore reduces the severity of nicotine withdrawal symptoms making the quit journey more tolerable.

In Singapore, NRT is available as chewing gum and patches.

The only brand of NRT available in Singapore is Nicorette. Nicorette chewing gum comes in an Icy Mint flavour. It also comes in 2 strengths – 2mg and 4mg.

READ: Why Can’t Singapore Just Ban Cigarettes?

How do I choose which strength to use?

If you smoke one or more packs of cigarettes (20 cigarettes) per day – use the 4mg strength

If you smoke less than one pack of cigarettes (20 cigarettes) per day – use the 2mg strength

How many gums can I chew in a day?

You should chew a gum each time you have the urge to smoke. As time goes by, you should need fewer and fewer gums.

A recommended weaning program is:

First 12 weeks – 8 to 12 gums per day

Then reduce to 4 to 6 gums per day over 2 weeks

Then reduce to 1 to 3 gums per day over another 2 weeks

Then gradually reduce to zero gums

How do I chew Nicorette gum? Do I just chew it non-stop?

Chew the gum until you the flavour becomes strong. Then place the gum between your teeth and cheek. The nicotine from the gum will be absorbed through your cheek. When the flavour fades, chew the gum again. Keep repeating these steps for 30 minutes. After which the gum can be disposed of. When you have the urge to smoke again, chew another new gum.

What is the price of Nicorette gums?

The price of Nicorette Icy Mint gums at our clinics in Singapore are:

  • 2mg
    • 30 pcs – $28.50
    • 105 pcs – $82.00
  • 4mg
    • 30 pcs – $42.00
    • 105 pcs – $119.00

Prices inclusive of GST.

Nicorette is also available for delivery via our medication delivery service. 

Need more help to quit?

Join the Singapore’s Health Promotion Board I Quit program.

Call 1800 438 2000 to talk to trained consultants to help you through your quit journey. Sign up for the 28 days quit program and get rewarded for staying smoke free: https://www.healthhub.sg/programmes/88/IQuit

Speak to your doctor today for more information regarding Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

Next read: How To Quit Smoking – Smoking Cessation In Singapore

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Responsible Drinking Over The Festive Season

It’s the most wonderful time of the year.. 

Happy holidays to one and all! While it is the season to be jolly, it is also the season where one may tend to consume too much alcohol. It is important to keep in mind not to drink too much. Excessive alcohol intake in one sitting can lead to intoxication, impaired judgement and negative physical behaviour such as drink driving and unsafe sex. Chronic alcohol overuse can lead to an increased risk of liver disease, some cancers, unintentional injury and social problems. 

How much is too much?

​​​​​​​If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. According to Singapore’s Health Promotion Board (HPB), women should limit themselves to one standard drink a day and men to two standard drinks a day. A standard drink contains 10 grams of alcohol, and is equivalent to:

  • 330 ml (one can) of beer (158 kcal)
  • Or 100 ml of wine (140 kcal)
  • Or 30 ml of hard liquor (89 kcal)


Alcohol and Cardiovascular health

There is a paradox regarding alcohol and cardiovascular health. It is true that alcohol in low to moderate amounts has a cardioprotective effect. However, excessive alcohol intake can cause high cholesterol and high blood pressure, leading to an increased risk of heart attack, heart failure and stroke. In men, erectile dysfunction can sometimes be the first sign of impending cardiovascular problems.

The Asian flush

The dreaded Asian flush, the bane of many and frequently a source of embarrassment. To understand why some people turn tomato red after just a few alcoholic beverages, we first need to understand the basic chemistry of alcohol metabolism.
Alcohol or ethanol is broken down initially by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase into acetaldehyde, a highly toxic compound that contributes to the hungover feeling. In most people, acetaldehyde is subsequently converted by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase into harmless acetate and water. 
Approximately 70% of East Asians (Han Chinese, Japanese and Korean descent) have a mutated or altered form of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. This causes reduced activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase, therefore such people take a much longer time to completely digest alcohol. As more toxic acetaldehyde circulates in the body, it leads to facial flushing and other symptoms such as headache, lightheadedness, nausea and palpitations. In other words, if a person experiences the Asian flush, it is the body’s way of signalling to stop drinking and start hydrating instead. 

3 common facts about drinking alcohol

Fact 1: Women have a tendency to get drunk faster than men.
This is true. A woman’s body typically takes longer to process alcohol. This is because women have a different fat-to-muscle ratio and a smaller blood volume than men. Women also have lower levels of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, which begins the initial metabolism of alcohol in the stomach. Hormonal changes during a woman’s menstrual cycle can also affect alcohol absorption.
Fact 2: Alternating with non-alcoholic drinks will help to slow down alcohol absorption.
This is true. Drinking slowly or alternating with non-alcoholic drinks such as water, soda water or diet cordials will reduce the rate of alcohol consumption and also slow down alcohol absorption.
Fact 3: Drinking more non-alcoholic drinks after alcohol consumption will help to cure a hangover.
This is true. A person who is having a hangover is likely to be dehydrated and deficient in electrolytes such as sodium and potassium. Drinking plenty of water, sports drinks or coconut water can help to replenish the fluids and electrolytes, and helps to speed up the recovery from a hangover.

3 common myths about drinking alcohol

Myth 1: Mixing different types of alcoholic drinks gets you drunk quicker. 
This is false. The level of alcohol in one’s blood is what determines the likelihood of a person to get drunk. Therefore, the type of alcohol or mixing different types of alcohol does not make a difference. What is more important is the amount of alcohol being consumed. Drinking a lot of any type of alcohol can lead to dehydration, intoxication and a nasty hangover.
Myth 2: Eating oily food before consuming alcohol will help keep one sober.
This is false. Drinking on a full stomach only delays the rate of absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream, as the fat content in oily food helps to coat the stomach lining. However, it does not prevent one from eventually getting intoxicated if the alcohol intake is high.
Myth 3: Taking a cold bath or drinking hot coffee will help one to sober up.
This is false. While showers, fresh air and hot coffee or tea might feel a little refreshing, none of these things will help to sober a person up. Only time can help a person to sober up. It takes the body approximately one hour to eliminate the alcohol from one standard drink. 
Coffee contains caffeine, a stimulant that helps one feel more alert and awake. It does not speed up the process of alcohol metabolism. You may mistakenly think that the hangover has resolved, but when the effects of caffeine fade, extreme lethargy starts to kick in, which can result in potentially fatal consequences while driving or operating machinery.

Tips for responsible drinking and avoiding getting drunk


  • Learn to say no. Do not be influenced by your friends or social circumstances. Focus on socialising and conversing with friends instead of drinking.
  • If you must drink, drink slowly and do not treat alcohol as a thirst quencher.
  • Avoid engaging in drinking games.
  • Always stay hydrated and alternate your drinks with non-alcoholic drinks such as water, soda water or diet cordials.
  • Avoid pre-mixed drinks with added sugars, or mixing alcohol with energy drinks as they can be higher in calories.
  • Never drink on an empty stomach. A light and nutritious snack or meal before a drinking session can help slow down alcohol absorption.
  • Avoid salty food as they can make you thirsty and reach out for more drinks.
  • Light beer and wine spritzers have a lower alcohol and calorie content and are good ways to reduce overall alcohol intake.

Therefore, the next time you raise that wine glass during your round of merrymaking, please think about regulating your amount of alcohol consumption, and drink responsibly. 


Find a doctor | Make an appointment


Movember: 13 FAQs On Mental Health And More For The Community.

Mental Health Don’t Discriminate.

As part of the Movember series on Mental Health & Suicide Prevention awareness, Dr Tan & Partners (DTAP Clinic) has team-up with the counsellors in Oogachaga to come out with 13 FAQs on Mental health and other health concerns for all the Men in the community!

The Questions are from Counsellors of Oogachaga. The Answers are from Doctors in DTAP Clinic in Singapore & Malaysia.

Q1: What can I do to maintain a good mental health status?

Dr Taufiq: There are many ways one can do this. Let me list a few and elaborate a bit on them.

  • Share your feelings – talking about how you feel is a good form of release and prevents you from bottling up your feelings only for it to affect you negatively later on.
  • Be physically active – Exercising and being active improves blood flow and release endorphins which helps to promote a positive mood.
  • Eat healthy – Clean and healthy food keeps your body healthy. With a healthy body, you can stay mentally healthy too.
  • Ask for help – if you have come to a point where you are not sure of what to do or how to control your emotions, seek help. Oogachaga has professional counsellors that can help you with your issues.

Q2: My anxiety often keeps me awake at night and I find myself irritable and moody the next day. How can I work on my sleeping schedule?

Dr Taufiq: To improve sleeping schedule you need to practice good sleep hygiene. Here are some tips:

  1. Have a regular routine that you do before sleep like brushing your teeth, drinking water etc.
  2. Avoid watching tv in bed. The bedroom should be reserved for sleep and sex only.
  3. Don’t take caffeinated drinks before you go to bed.
  4. Fix a time at which you go to bed.

#DidYouKnow: In generalised anxiety disorder, feelings of anxiety overwhelm and affect one’s daily functioning and life….

Posted by Dr Tan & Partners on Tuesday, May 28, 2019
8 Ways to Cope with Anxiety

Q3: Do I have to come out as bisexual if I don’t have a partner of the same gender?

Dr Taufiq: Try not to be too worried about labels. If you are not partnered right now, it’s a good time to focus on yourself. Pick up a new hobby, learn a new skill, socialize, make new friends. When the right person comes along then it is good, if not you will still be able to live the best life that you can.

Q4: It’s stressful to hear my colleagues say nasty remarks about the queer community. How can I manage to work in a homophobic environment and maintain good relationships with my colleagues?

Dr Taufiq: You need to establish whether your superior and your company is LGBTQ friendly and open to all sexuality. If they are, then speak to your superior to share how you feel about the situation. See if he or she can find a way to make the work environment more comfortable for all. Your superior may also be able to mediate the discussion between you and your colleagues to talk about this issue and clear up misconceptions and unhappiness.

However, if the workplace or your superior is not LGBTQ friendly or open to discussion, then it might not be wise to approach them to talk about this. I suggest speaking to a counsellor from Oogachaga to find out how best to deal with such situations.


Q5: Is being gay a mental illness or an emotional problem?

Dr Julian Ng: Being gay is NOT a mental illness or an emotional problem. A gay person is simply a male who has a romantic interest in another male, just like heterosexuals who have a romantic interest in the opposite sex.

Just like how someone may like someone with long hair or a great smile or a good sense of humour while another person may prefer other characteristics, being gay is NOT something that one can change or have control. It is simply a difference in interest.

Q6: Why do people attempt suicide when they appear to feel better?

Dr Julian Ng: Some people attempt suicide because they have lost hope while others simply want to stop the pain. Sometimes they hide away their pain so that their loved ones would not worry. We have also heard of cases where someone has already made up their mind but just wants to spend their final hours with their loved ones with the thinking that at least their loved ones will have that final happy memory to remember them by. 

In addition, some may feel better when they are in the company of their loved ones/ friends but when they are alone, the sense of loneliness/ hopefulness comes back.

Q7: I am currently in a heterosexual relationship, can I still identify as bisexual?

Dr Julian Ng: Definitely! Just because you are in a heterosexual relationship, it doesn’t change your sexuality. Sexuality is the emotional, romantic, and/or sexual attractions with whom you build your relationship with.

Q8: How do I know if I am feeling depressed and need to seek help?

Dr Guna: It’s common for one to feel down at times but if you feel hopeless and it just won’t go away, you may have depression. Depression symptoms vary from one to another but in general, you will be able to identify some of them.

Common symptoms of depression are:

  • Loss of interest in daily activities – You have stopped feeling joyful and do not find pleasure in things you used to.
  • Feelings of helplessness and hopelessness – you will start thinking that nothing is going to make anything better, in fact, you might not even try.
  • Anger or irritability – your usual threshold level is no longer high. Anything and everything will make you agitated.
  • Appetite or weight changes. Significant weight loss or weight gain
    Self-loathing. You harshly criticize yourself and blame every mistake on you.
  • Sleep changes. Either insomnia, with frequent early awakenings, or oversleeping.
  • Loss of energy– You would feel you body has been glued to the ground. Too tired even for small activities such as having breakfast or even bathing.
  • Reckless behaviour – You will want to live life dangerously or they would say YOLO!
  • Concentration problems– Trouble focusing, making decisions, or remembering things.
  • Unexplained aches and pains. 

You will need to seek help when you think something is definitely off in your lifestyle. No one will know better about you other than yourself. Despite trying some life modifications, meditations and everything in the book, if you still notice things are not getting better, then it is time to seek professional help. 

Depression is an illness that falls under the category of mood disorders. Unlike the normal mood changes or occasional…

Posted by Dr Tan & Partners on Friday, May 3, 2019
5 Ways to Fight Depression


Q9: What can I say to medical professionals who have misgendered me?

Dr Guna: Misgendering is on the rise. Whilst some are on an adventure figuring out themselves, they too have to deal with the public that may unknowingly misgender them. So what should you do? Should you just lash out and scream, ITS MA’AM or just let it slide? Here are some tips for you!

You may consider the following if you would like to correct them:

  • Is it going to be a one-off meeting? If it is, it might be better to save your saliva. Think about it, why waste your time with one person. 
  • How are they going to react? To be honest, there are still some aggro dude bro doctors out there. They might react in the weirdest way possible. So, save yourself some trouble.
  • Your emotional capacity. This is the most important step. If you have reached your BS level for the day, just go with it. If you can rectify the mistake, why not! Make them understand that you have found yourself and you will be pleased if they can stop misgendering you!. 

Despite being in the future, some still go through hard times in the doctor’s office, especially when they are being called with their “dead” names. 

It’s vitally important for trans people to get the healthcare they need while being treated fairly and with respect. Discrimination against trans people in medical offices and hospitals occurs on a daily basis and not many know this. However, many of these people are standing up for themselves and taking action so other trans patients don’t have to suffer through the same ordeal in the future. 

In the end, the choice is always up to you. Some would love to guard their mental health and emotional capacity very carefully. For others, it might be the opposite. It’s really a personal choice and it’ll have to be your decision. Good luck!

For a  better counselling on how to handle such situations, you may look for Oogachaga. This is a community-based, non-profit, professional organisation working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals, couples and families in Singapore since 1999. 


Q10: Is it possible for me to get pregnant even though I am on hormone replacement therapy (HRT)?

Dr Guna: HRT generally means taking medications to stimulate certain types of hormones. One of them being testosterone. Testosterone greatly reduces your ability to become pregnant but it does not completely eliminate the risk of pregnancy. Transgender men can become pregnant even while on testosterone. Being said that, if you are sexually active, you do have chances of getting pregnant.  If you think you may have become pregnant, stop your hormone therapy and see a doctor soon as testosterone can endanger the fetus. 

If you do want to have a pregnancy, you’ll have to stop testosterone treatment and wait until your doctor tells you that it’s okay to start trying for a little one.

You should bear in mind that taking testosterone will definitely reduce the chances of one to get pregnant. So, do plan ahead. There are a variety of options from IVF to surrogacy. You also have the option of egg freezing which you can consider prior to starting the hormone therapy. All these options have a high price range, so always plan ahead! 

You can also visit any fertility centres for a better explanation regarding your fertility status. 

Q11: I identify as a transgender man and have not gone for gender-affirming surgery. I find it hard to use male toilets in public and in work for fear of being outed. What can I do?

Dr Guna: This is a very tricky question as many opinions and suggestions are made available out there. To be very honest with you, no one should ever tell what should you do. You first must be comfortable with yourself for you to be comfortable in public. It’s not going to be easy to be out of your comfort zone whilst the public is continuously judging you. 

In Malaysia, back in 2018, Deputy Minister in the Prime Minister’s Department Fuziah Salleh, has urged the transgender community to use the disabled toilets if no unisex toilets are available nearby. This is something to ponder on. Let’s face it, some transgender male, are afraid of using the males toilet as they are worried they might be physically abused, which has happened many times. If they have decided to use the female toilets, the female users might fear for their safety. What much can the transgender community do if they are not given a chance to even breathe properly? 

Another option that I would suggest is, get in touch with your local support group. Discussing matters such as this will help you figure out some better and brilliant ideas as most of them would have pretty much gone through similar things in their life.

Q12: How can I deal with my mental health without the use of medication?

Dr Julian Hong: Top 5 Tips!

  1. Speak to your doctor, get a thorough assessment, sometimes some conditions require medications for treatment and sometimes you can work with your trusted healthcare professional to aim to wean down the medications.
  2. Speak to a counsellor/psychologist.
  3. Get support from your close friends or family, do not be afraid to reach out!
  4. Pick up a new hobby or create an exercise plan – exercise is known to prevent and also help reduce the occurrence of mental health conditions.
  5. Always remember you are not alone and help is but a phone call away!

Q13: Is talking about suicide a bad idea and might be interpreted as an encouragement?

Dr Guna: This question is one of the most famous myths around. People who take their lives don’t want to die, they just want to stop hurting. Most suicidal individuals give ample warning signs or signals of their intentions. Recognizing these warning signs and knowing how to respond when you spot them is the best way of prevention. You can always play a role in suicide prevention by pointing out the alternatives. Showing that you care will help them immensely. If all else fails, getting a doctor or psychologist involved will the best option. 

Suicide warning signs include:

  • Feelings of helplessness, hopelessness, and being trapped. The belief that things will never get better or change
  • Talking about suicide – such as “I wish I hadn’t been born,” “If I see you again…” and “I’d be better off dead.”
  • Seeking access to objects that could be used in a suicide attempt
  • Unusual focus on death, dying, or violence.
  • Feelings of worthlessness, guilt, shame, and self-hatred.
  • Desire to be left alone.
  • Saying goodbye to people as if they won’t be seen again.
  • A sudden sense of calm and happiness after being extremely depressed can mean that the person has made a decision to attempt suicide.
  • Taking unnecessary risks as if they have a “death wish.”

If you are advising a friend that is suicidal, always remember to never say things like: “You have so much to live for,” “Your suicide will hurt your family,” or “Look on the bright side.” Although these are the statements you would want to tell, but there is no point in arguing with them. Always listen to them, and let them speak. Do not interrupt them. Never say suicide is wrong. They know it’s wrong and that’s why they are seeking help. If you think you have no idea how to handle such a situation, help by directing them to a support group. 

Dr Julian Hong: Talking about suicide does not cause suicide. In fact, when it is out in the open, you get to find support and even address the root cause of the suicidal thoughts which more often than not needs a medical evaluation.

Figures from Samaritans of Singapore – In Singapore, Suicide is the leading cause of death for those aged 10-29. There are 2.5 times more deaths from suicide than transport accidents in 2017. 361 lives were lost to suicide in 2017. Males account for more than 66.2% of all suicides in 2017

If you are a loved one who knows of a young person struggling with their mental health, these are some warning signs to look out for (adapted from SOS Singapore)


  • “My family will be better off without me”
  • “My life is meaningless anyway”
  • “If you don’t love me, I’ll kill myself”


  • Giving away treasured possessions and saying goodbye
  • Researching suicide methods
  • Writing suicide notes (including emails/diaries/blogs)


  • Emotional outbursts
    (anger, sadness, irritability, recklessness)
  • Loss of interest
  • Anxiousness or feelings of shame

For immediate help – Call 999 or the Samaritans of Singapore (SOS) at 1800-221-4444 (Both operate 24/7). Stay on the phone with them until someone comes to you. Or, head down to the Accident & Emergency (A&E) Department of the nearest hospital for someone to attend to you.


Speak To A Professional Counsellor

Speaking to a professional counsellor is helpful as counselling therapy allows the individual to talk about their personal issues and feelings in a confidential, non-judgemental and safe environment.

The counsellor works together with the individual on their issues to help them achieve greater insight into self-understanding, improved relationship with self and others and better control over their life. Counselling provides the individual with different perspectives on their current issues, make sense of past experiences and help them understand how it affects the present, the person they are today.


Oogachaga is a community-based, non-profit, professional organisation working with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals, couples and families in Singapore since 1999.

They strive forward with a mission to enable lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals to make informed decisions that strengthen them and to help them achieve a fulfilling life.

Oogachaga’s team of professional counsellors come from diverse backgrounds, all of whom adopt an LGBTQ-friendly approach that is guided by gay-affirmative practice.

Their services:

  • Hotline, WhatsApp and Email Counselling
  • Professional Counselling
  • Professional Training
  • Corporate Engagement
  • Support Groups

For professional help or counselling, speak to the counsellors at Oogachaga!

For other resources, please see www.congregaytion.com


ESWT Treatment For Shoulder Pain

Watch as Dr Edwin Ong, Resident Doctor, Dr Tan & Partners (DTAP clinic) talks about ESWT, Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy,  as an effective treatment for shoulder pain.
Shock Wave therapy is a safe, quick and non-invasive treatment using energy from sound waves to activate the self healing properties of the body and accelerate the recovery process.
It does so in a number of ways: 

  1. Firstly, through a process known as cavitation, Shock Wave therapy stimulates the production of fibroblasts and tenocytes. These are the cells responsible for the healing of connective tissues such as tendons. The end result is tissue regeneration.
  2. Secondly, the Shock Waves stimulate microscopic circulation and therefore metabolism within the treatment area, which promotes healing and the breakdown of calcification deposits, also known as spurs.
  3. Lastly, Shock Wave therapy diminishes pain by over-stimulation of the nerves that send pain signals to the brain.

Shoulder Pain

It works for a variety of causes of shoulder pain including rotator cuff tendinitis and frozen shoulder.

Rotator cuff injury

Repetitive overhead arm movements, heavy lifting or other forms of trauma can strain the rotator cuff tendons and lead to tendinitis. Tendinitis can also develop due to chronic degeneration. The pain is felt mainly when raising the arm outwards and upwards from the body. When tendinitis is present, there is an increased risk of a rotator cuff tear occurring. The tear can be partial or complete and results in weakness when trying to raise the arm.

Frozen shoulder

Also known as adhesive capsulitis, this is a condition in which the movement of the shoulder becomes severely restricted due to the growth of abnormal bands of tissue (called adhesions) between joint surfaces and a lack of synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. Frozen shoulder commonly occurs between the ages of 40 to 60 and can occur after a rotator cuff impingement, a tendon tear, or even minor injury. The problem usually resolves on its own, but this can take up to three years.
To conduct the treatment for shoulder pain, we place the treatment probe over the affected area and deliver the required number of shocks. The treatment for shoulder pain is tolerable. Most patients will need about 2 to 3 sessions each 2 weeks apart.
If you are suffering from shoulder pain and requires tratment for shoulder pain, speak to your Doctor and ask if Shock Wave therapy is right for you.
Please call or visit our Siglap Branch or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com for an appointment.

A Case of HIV from Vampire Facial

Our clinics recently diagnosed a case of HIV from a vampire facial.
A Vampire Facial is a type of cosmetic treatment that was made popular by celebrity Kim Kardashian.
The treatment involves taking the patient’s own blood and spinning it down until the cells separate out of the liquid portion (plasma). Small needles known as micro-needles are then used to make multiple small holes in the patient’s face. The plasma is then poured over the face so that it soaks into these holes.
Two cases of HIV infection from such treatments were reported earlier this year in Albuquerque, New Mexico in the US. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/912436
Vampire Facial treatment is NOT approved in Singapore.

What Can You Do to Protect Yourself?

Before undergoing a treatment, ensure that the establishment has all the proper local licenses required.
Ensure that the therapist conducting the treatment has all the training certifications required.
Do not undergo any treatments in non-medically licensed establishments that involves blood or body fluids.
For treatments that involve puncturing or breaking the skin, ensure that the instruments used are properly packaged and sterilized. 
Insist on seeing the operator open the sealed package in front of you.

If you feel you might have been exposed to an infection, see your local Doctor immediately for a discussion on HIV PEP and screening for other blood-borne infections like Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C.

Learn More about Other STDs & Other STD Symptoms

Singapore Haze and How to Use a N95 Mask

If you are indoors with the air conditioning on, you may not realise it is there, but as soon as you step out and the acrid smell hits your nostrils, you will know that the haze is back yet again. In recent days, the haze situation has been closely followed by various news outlets.
Also Read: Singapore Ministry of Health Guidelines on Haze

The “Hazy” is Back!

In a recent article published by Channel News Asia titled, “Singapore’s air quality may enter ‘unhealthy’ range in the next 24 hours: NEA”, the National Environment Agency (NEA) said it was “slightly hazy” in Singapore on Thursday (12th September), with the 24-hour Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) reading falling in the Moderate range of between 75 and 87 at 7 pm.
At the time of writing of this article on 13th September, the PSI was recorded at 97 in the southern parts of Singapore. A PSI reading between 101 to 200 falls in the Unhealthy range.
Yes, this frequent yet unwelcome visitor has arrived at our shores once again. The haze in Singapore is caused by smoke originating from hotspots in central and southern Sumatra being blown in by the prevailing winds. The fires are usually started during operations to clear land for palm oil and pulp plantations.

For up to date air quality readings in Singapore including PSI and PM2.5 please refer to the NEA website:  https://www.nea.gov.sg/ 

The Impact of Haze on our Health

The haze spells trouble for all of us in general, but particularly for those with pre-existing respiratory conditions like Asthma and Bronchitis, as the poor air quality can easily trigger exacerbations to occur. Hospital Emergency Departments tend to see a rise in such cases during times of haze. Research has shown that even minor exposure to air pollution can have a negative impact on the lungs, heart and even the brain. Aside from PSI, air quality is also measured by PM2.5, which is a measure of the concentration of tiny particles less than 2.5 micrometres in diameter, or about one-thirtieth the diameter of a human hair. Airborne particles in the PM10 size range and below can be drawn into the body with every breath, and deposited in the mouth, throat, nose and lungs.
The NEA advises that when the air quality reaches the Unhealthy range:

  • Healthy people should reduce prolonged or strenuous outdoor physical activities
  • Elderly, pregnant women and children should minimise prolonged or strenuous outdoor physical exertion
  • Persons with chronic lung or heart disease should avoid prolonged or strenuous outdoor physical activities

Choosing the Correct Face Mask

This is the time when the public will start stocking up on face masks to shield themselves from air pollution. It is important to note that some common face masks may not be sufficient against fine haze particles, and choosing the wrong one will only give the wearer a false sense of security instead of providing adequate protection.
Common surgical face masks are designed to catch the wearer’s own bodily fluids, such as saliva and nasal discharge, and prevent any infectious liquid droplets from spreading to others. According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), if worn properly, these can also help prevent large-particle droplets, splashes, sprays or splatter that may contain viruses and bacteria from reaching a wearer’s mouth and nose.
Usage of surgical face masks can help to reduce the discomfort caused by haze by providing a barrier between the wearer and larger irritant particles in the air. However, as they do not have an in-built filter mechanism, they are ineffective in filtering particles that are PM2.5 or smaller, and thus cannot provide adequate protection when worn in the haze.
Particulate respirators contain a filter mechanism and are designed to be sealed against the face of the wearer. This way, most of the air that the wearer breathes in goes through the filter and not through the gaps between the mask and the wearer’s face. They are designed to protect the wearer from inhaling harmful dust, fumes, vapours or gases. Examples of particulate respirators include the well known N95 mask, which is certified by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and also the EN-149 mask, which is the European equivalent.

How to Use an ‘N95’ Mask

‘N95’ means that the mask is not oil-resistant, and is able to filter out at least 95% of particles that do not contain oil. Studies have shown that N95 masks are able to provide good protection against the haze as they are at least 95% efficient against fine particles that are about 0.1 to 0.3 micrometres, and 99.5% efficient against particles that are 0.75 micrometres and larger.
It is important to take note of the following with regards to N95 mask usage:

  • The mask has to fit the wearer appropriately and provide a good seal. Choose an appropriate size, check for a proper fit and ensure that it covers the mouth and nose without a leak.
  • The mask has to be worn correctly in order to provide adequate protection. This video by the Ministry of Health demonstrates the 6 steps to follow when wearing an N95 mask:
  • Due to the tight seal and filter mechanism, the N95 mask takes some getting used to and may feel uncomfortable to use as it reduces air intake and requires increased breathing effort. For persons with chronic lung or heart conditions and may have pre-existing breathing issues, consult your doctor if you are unsure if you should use the N95 mask.
  • The N95 mask is recommended for use when outdoors for long durations. It is not necessary to use an N95 mask in indoor environments and for short outdoor exposure. As a guide, the NEA recommends that healthy people should use an N95 mask when the PSI exceeds 300. Persons with chronic lung or heart conditions, elderly and pregnant women should use an N95 mask when the PSI exceeds 200.
  • The N95 mask is a disposable respirator. It can be reused, but do not share it with others. If it gets soiled or dirty, change the mask.
  • If you decide to get an EN-149 mask, be sure to choose the FFP2 class, which filters 94% of airborne particles and is the closest equivalent to the N95 mask.

Mask up, and stay safe in this hazy weather!

Keracunan makanan. Apakah yang anda perlu tahu?

Keracunan makanan adalah penyakit diakibatkan oleh makanan atau minuman yang tercemar dengan kuman, virus atau kulat. Kuman-kuman yang sering menyebabkan keracunan makan antaranya adalah E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus, Bacillusdan lain-lain lagi. Di kalangan virus, yang paling kerap dilihat adalah norovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus dan astrovirus. Jarang sekali parasit seperti Cryptosporidiumjuga boleh menyebabkan keracunan makanan. Keracunan makanan mempunyai potensi untuk menjadi penyakit yang serius yang boleh membawa maut. Kita lihat apakah simptom-simptom, komplikasi, individu risiko tinggi dan cara-cara mencegah keracunan makanan seterusnya.
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Apakah simptom/gejala keracunan makanan?

Antara simptom atau gejala-gejala keracunan makanan adalah:

  • Loya dan muntah
  • Cirit-birit (sama ada berdarah atau tidak)
  • Sakit perut
  • Demam
  • Merasa penat atau kelesuan

Dikalangan simptom-simptom di atas, yang dikatakan serius adalah demam, cirit-birit berdarah dan kelesuan.

Bagaimana kita mengenal pasti individu-individu yang kemungkinan mendapat risiko untuk mengalami komplikasi?

Walaupun kebanyakan atau majoriti individu yang dikenakan penyakit keracunan makanan akan pulih tanpa memerlukan lawatan hospital, sesetengah individu mempunyai risiko yang tinggi untuk mengalami komplikasi. Individu-individu tersebut termasuk:

  • Warga tua terutamanya mereka yang mempunyai penyakit kronik (jantung, buah pinggang etc)
  • Bayi dan kanak-kanak
  • Individu yang mempunyai imuniti rendah (contohnya pesakit HIV, pesakit yang memerlukan dos steroid yang tinggi atau ubat menurunkan sistem imun untuk penyakit, pesakit barah atau kanser yang menjalani kemoterapi)
  • Perempuan hamil

Apakah pula komplikasi yang boleh diakibatkan oleh penyakit ini?

Ini adalah termasuk:

  • Dehidrasi yang boleh mengakibatkan fungsi organ-organ tergendala
  • Pengurangan berat badan
  • Kekeliruan dan kurang atau tidak kesedaran (terutamanya antara warga tua)
  • Komplikasi terhadap janin
  • Maut

Bilakah saya perlu melawat doktor atau hospital dengan segera?

Dikalangan dewasa, anda perlu lawat doktor atau hospital jika:

  • Semua air atau minuman yang anda minum dimuntah keluar selama 24 jam dan lebih
  • Muntah-muntah selama 2 hari
  • Muntah berdarah
  • Cirit-birit berdarah
  • Demam lebih daripada 40 suku darjah Celsius
  • Dehidrasi – simptomnya adalah merasa terlampau haus, kencing mewarna kuning pekat atau sedikit/tiada kencing langsung, merasa terlampau lemah dan pening dan kelesuan

Dikalangan bayi dan kanak-kanak, anda perlu membawa kehospital dengan segerajika:

  • Demam 38.9 suku darjah Celsius dan ke atas
  • Kelesuan dan kesusahan untuk selesai
  • Perut merasa terlalu sakit
  • Cirit-birit darah
  • Dehidrasi – simptomnya adalah warna kencing yang pekat, diaper yang tidak basah dalam masa 6 jam, fontanel yang lembut di atas kepala dikalangan bayi, menangis tanpa air mata, mulut kering, terlalu mengantuk dan tidak bertindak balas
  • Muntah-muntah lebih daripada beberapa jam

Jika bayi anda berumur kurang daripada 3 bulandan disyaki mendapat penyakit keracunan makanan, tidak kira tanda-tanda serius, bayi itu mesti dibawa ke hospital dengan segera. Sama juga bagi mereka yang hamilyang mengesyaki penyakit keracunan makanan, perlu melawat hospital secepat mungkin untuk memastikan kesihatan janin tidak terjejas.

Apakah langkah-langkah pencegahan keracunan makanan yang boleh diambil?

Amalan kebersihan yang baik

Semua orang menpunyai tanggungjawab untuk memastikan kebersihan peribadi, keluarga atau di tempat perniagaan makanan adalah sebaik mungkin. Ini termasuk pembasuhan tangan dengan air dan sabun atau gel/lap sanitasi dengan teliti terutamanya sebelum dan selepas makan atau sebelum, semasa dan selepas penyediaan makanan. Ini juga termasuk kanak-kanak – pengajaran pembasuhan tangan di kalangan kanak-kanak adalah salah satu pencontohan yang baik kepada mereka. Meja-meja juga perlu dibersih/dilapkan dengan bersih sebelum dan selepas makan.

Amalan penyediaan makanan yang teratur dan baik

Selain daripada kebersihan peribadi dan tangan yang baik, makanan yang mentah mesti disediakan dengan teliti. Contohnya mengasingkan alat dipakai untuk daging mentah daripada sayur/buah mentah melalui papan cincang asing. Setelah selasai, pastikan alat-alat tersebut dibasuh secukupnya dengan air dan sabun.

Memastikan makanan yang dimakan adalah dimasak dengan sepenuhnya

Makanan seperti daging, ikan dan makanan laut yang lain seperti udang, kerang dan lain-lain mesti dimasak dengan sepenuhnya/secukupnya dan tidak berbau busuk untuk mengelakkan risiko penyakit keracunan makanan.

Vaksin-vaksin untuk dipertimbangkan

Walaupun bukan wajib, individu-individu mempunyai pilihan untuk mendapatkan vaksin seperti vaksin Typhoid (terutamanya sebelum perjalanan ke luar negara di mana penyediaan makanan tidak dipastikan bersih) dan vaksin Rotavirus dan Cholera (di kalangan kanak-kanak). Sila hubungi klinik-klinik kami untuk maklumat yang lebih lanjut.

Langkah-langkah untuk diambil dan dijaga ketika di luar negara

Ketika di luar negara di mana penyediaan makanan kurang pasti bersih, beberapa langkah perlu diambil supaya risiko mengalami penyakit keracunan makanan dikurangkan sebanyak mungkin. Ini termasuk:

  • Meminum minuman atau air daripada botol (yang dibeli dan belum dibuka) sahaja
  • Mengelakkan ais (kerana ais kemungkinan dibuat daripada air yang tercemar)
  • Mengelakkan buah-buahan yang telah dikopek atau yang tidak ada kulit seperti strawberi dan salad mentah – sebaliknya anda sendiri mengopek buah-buahan seperti pisang dan oren adalah disyorkan
  • Mengelakkan daging dan ikan mentah
  • Mendapatkan vaksin-vaksin yang disebutkan di atas sebelum perjalanan ke luar negara


Penyakit keracunan makanan adalah salah satu penyakit yang boleh kerap berlaku di kalangan individu. Majoriti individu tidak akan mengalami penyakit yang serius. Walaubagaimanapun, simptom-simptom dan tanda-tanda serius mesti diketahui dan tidak boleh diambil dengan mudah. Langkah-langkah pencegahan adalah tanggungjawab semua individu untuk mengelakkan orang tersayang kita atau pelanggan di restoran mengalami penyakit ini.

Artikel ini ditulis oleh Dr. Ezlyn Izharuddin dari klinik wanita kami

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Dengue Fever Symptoms? Dengue Fever What You Need to Know

Dengue Fever symptoms are divided into 3 phrases – the Febrile Phase, the Critical Phase and the Recovery (or convalescent) Phase.


What is Dengue Fever?

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection and is endemic in Singapore. It is carried by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti and its related species, which are abundant in tropical countries. The dengue virus (DEN) comprises 4 serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) which belong to the genus Flavivirus.

The viruses are passed on through the bites of an infective female Aedes mosquito, which mainly acquires the virus while feeding on the blood of an infected person.

Also Read: Why the recent resurgence in Dengue Fever in Singapore?



What are the Symptoms of Dengue Fever?

The incubation period, which is the time between acquiring the infection and appearance of symptoms ranges from 3 to 14 days and symptoms typically develop between 4 and 7 days after the bite on an infected mosquito.

There are 3 Phases of Dengue Fever:

Febrile Phase

Dengue Fever symptoms – This phase is characterized by a sudden high-grade fever (usually 38.5 degrees C or more) and is accompanied by headache, nausea, vomiting, poor appetite, tiredness, muscle aches, joint pains, rash and pain behind the eyes, called retro-orbital pain.

Bleeding manifestations may occur during this phase.


Critical Phase

Dengue Fever symptoms – At the time the fever resolves, the infection enters the critical phase. It is known as the critical phase because potentially, a small proportion of individuals develop complications such as fluid leakage within organs such as around the lungs, abdomen and also bleeding.

The disease may progress to shock and dysfunction of the organs. This phase may last from 24 to 48 hours. Patients may also develop other warning signs during this stage (please see below on “When is dengue fever considered to be severe?”).

It is important to maintain good hydration during this phase (please see below for general advice).


Recovery (or convalescent) Phase

Dengue Fever symptoms – This is the phase during which fluid leakage and bleeding resolve, and vital signs (e.g. blood pressure) and blood tests improve. This can last 2 to 4 days. However, some individuals may still feel fatigued up to weeks after recovery before returning to normal.



What Blood Tests are Usually Performed in Suspected and Established Dengue Fever?

In suspected cases, a dengue antigen (NS1) and serology tests (IgM and IgG) are done to confirm the diagnosis. The NS1 antigen is usually positive during the first few days to a week of illness where as the IgM and IgG tests are typically positive on the fourth day and at 10 to 14 days of illness respectively.

After dengue fever is confirmed, a full blood count is drawn to assess the white blood cells, platelets as well as the haematocrit (measure of the percentage of red blood cells) levels. The platelets are cells in the body that help to form blood clots when bleeding occurs.

A simple example is when an individual sustains a cut on the arm, a complex process involving platelets help to form a clot and heal the cut. If the platelet count in the body is low, there is a tendency for bleeding and slower healing of cuts.

Liver function tests may also be performed as occasionally, the virus can cause inflammation of the liver, called hepatitis which can manifest as abdominal pain and tenderness.

In dengue fever, the white blood cell and platelet counts tend to drop where as the hematocrit may rise which reflects thickened or concentrated blood, a result of fluid leakage and shifts which can occur during the critical phase of dengue fever.

Dengue Fever Test is available in all our clinics.


What is the Recommended Follow-up of the Individual with Dengue Fever?

The individual is usually advised to return for daily to once in two day follow-ups for repeat full blood count tests to assess the trend of platelet and haematocrit levels.



When is Dengue Fever Considered to be Severe?

Based on the WHO 2009 classification, there is a syndrome called dengue with warning signs and these include:

  • Abdominal pain or tenderness
  • Persistent vomiting
  • Fluid leakage (around the abdomen causing distension and around the lungs causing breathing difficulty)
  • Bleeding
  • Lethargy or restlessness
  • Enlarged liver
  • Increase in haematocrit concurrent with a rapid decrease in platelet count


There is also a syndrome called severe dengue which is dengue fever with at least one of the following:

  • Severe fluid leakage leading to shock and fluid accumulation with respiratory distress
  • Severe bleeding
  • Severe organ involvement (liver, impaired consciousness or any other organ failure)

If any warning signs or signs of severe dengue are present, the clinicians will advice the individual to attend the hospital emergency department as soon as possible.



What Can an Individual Do When He or She Has Confirmed Dengue Fever?

There is no cure for dengue fever. Treatment is usually supportive with careful hydration and monitoring of symptoms and signs of complications. A good indicator of adequate hydration is the colour of urine. If the urine is pale yellow, then hydration is adequate; where as if it is dark yellow and concentrated appearing, then more hydration is needed. Once the dengue fever is in the recovery phase, there is no need for increased hydration.

Most individuals do not develop complications. However, there are those who are at higher risk of developing dengue fever with complications. These are typically elderly individuals or those who have had dengue fever in the past and get infected with a different dengue virus serotype.

Regardless, complications can still occur in any individual and it is imperative that an early review by a clinician is performed to avoid further deterioration at home.



Can Dengue Fever Be Prevented?

Yes. Avoidance of mosquitoes that carry the virus is the best way to prevent dengue fever. This can be done by staying indoors during the day, when mosquitoes that carry the virus are most active, putting up screens and using air conditioners, wearing covered shoes, long-sleeved shirts and long pants and a hat to go outside and using mosquito repellant containing DEET (but do not use DEET on babies younger than 2 months of age). Clothes that are sprayed with a chemical called permethrin can also help.

Lastly, it is important to drain any standing water at home such as wading pools, buckets and potted plants with saucers as mosquitoes breed in standing water. Standing water even the size of a 20 cent coin can encourage mosquito breeding.


Everyone plays a part in dengue fever prevention in the community. Remember that Dengue Fever is deadly. If you suspect that you have the symptoms dengue fever, please visit your doctor for proper danger fever testing.


Other Reads:

  1. What is Office Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  2. What are the signs & symptoms of Nose Cancer
  3. Mycoplasma Genitalium (MG) – STD Screening, Testing & Treatment
  4. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Or Prostatitis
  5. 5 Ways to Fight Depression
  6. 8 Ways on How to Cope with Anxiety 
  7. 7 Common Causes of Knee Pain
  8. Trichomoniasis In Men And Women – Sexually Transmitted Infection
  9. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Causes, Symptoms Treatment 
  10. Plantar Fasciitis – Causes Symptom Treatment
  11. Shoulder Pain – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment 
  12. Trigger Finger – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment
  13. Tennis Elbow & Golfer’s Elbow – What You Need to Know 
  14. STD Symptoms in Women, HIV Screening
  15. HIV Test Singapore