7 Different Types of Eczema

Eczema is an uncomfortable condition where parts of the skin become itchy, rough, inflamed, and in worst cases, ooze puss. Characterized by red patches and blisters, they are a great discomfort and are projected to plague a number of people in our population.

In this article, we will go over the various types of Eczema, their symptoms, and their causes in order to help you understand how to best prevent getting them. 


 
 

Different Types of Eczema


1. Stasis Dermatitis 

What is Stasis Dermatitis? 

Occurs usually in the lower leg, it is the formation of rough dry patches. It makes the leg feel heavy and inflamed. Stasis Dermatitis can also be known as Venous Dermatitis or Venous Eczema. 

What are the symptoms of Stasis Dermatitis? 

• Patches of skin colored yellow, red, or brown. 

• Bulging veins and swelling of the leg. 

• Itchiness and inflammation. 

• Sores that ooze. 

• Ulcers. 

What are the causes of Stasis Dermatitis? 

Usually found in individuals over 50 years of age or above, the condition is brought about by low circulation of blood to the leg. Usually due to high cholesterol or injury preventing proper blood flow. 

2. Nummular Eczema 

What is Nummular Eczema? 

Also known as Nummular Dermatitis or Discoid Eczema, these are characterized coin-shaped lesions that appear on the arm and legs that may or may not ooze puss or clear liquid. 

What are the symptoms of Nummular Eczema? 

• Circular lesions on the skin 

• Dry and itchy 

• Blisters that ooze liquid or puss 

What are the causes of Nummular Eczema?

There are no known definitive reasons why Nummular Eczema forms. It is thought that it is a congenital condition that forms when the individual is injured or experiences drastic changes in temperature. It may also be an allergic reaction to certain soaps or skin products. 

3. Neurodematitis 

What is Neurodematitis? 

Typically found on the neck, wrists, arms, legs and anal region, it is known for causing extreme itchiness that will worsen if scratched – creating an uncomfortable itch-scratch cycle. 

What are the symptoms of Neurodematitis? 

• Itchy Patches 

• Scaly textured skin 

• Patches that are rough and differently colored to the rest of the skin. 

What are the causes of Neurodematitis? 

A chronic skin condition, it is generally thought to form through bug bites or tight fitting clothes. There is, however, no objectively proven reason for their formation.

4. Hand Eczema 

What is Hand Eczema

Also known as hand dermatitis, it is blisters and red patches in the hands that are thought to be caused by allergic reaction or genetics. 

What are the symptoms of Hand Eczema? 

• Red Patches on the hands 

• Blistering 

• Dryness and flaking 

• Itchiness and pain 

What are the causes of Hand Eczema? 

Likely caused by allergic reaction to irritant substances. It is also known to come seasonally for those who possess it genetically. 


5. Dyshidrotic Eczema 

What is Dyshidrotic Eczema? 

Also known as Pompholyx, it is a form of dermatitis that forms on the tips of fingers, soles of feet, toes, and palms. Such a skin condition can sometimes be unresponsive to treatment and can cause much burden to both patient and doctor. 

What are the symptoms of Dyshidrotic Eczema? 

• Blistering and scaliness 

• Clear, white, or yellow colored patches 

• Itchy and may exude clear liquid 

What are the causes of Dyshidrotic Eczema? 

It may be caused by stress, pollen, excessive sweating, and/or an allergic reaction to nickel in jewelry or other metals. 


6. Contact Dermatitis 

What is Contact Dermatitis

It is the red and itchy patches of skin caused by direct contact to substances which one is allergic to.

What are the symptoms of Contact Dermatitis?

• Red rashes 

• Bumps caused by severe scratching 

• Itchiness 

• Tenderness, swelling, or burning sensation of the skin. 

What are the causes of Contact Dermatitis? 

The likely culprits are cosmetic products, soaps, and/or cleaning chemicals that cause irritation and allergic reactions.


7. Atopic Dermatitis 

What is Atopic Dermatitis? 

Long lasting and tends to flare up in periodic time frames, it is characterized by red itchy patches and may be accompanied by fever or asthma. There is no known cure. 

What are the symptoms of Atopic Dermatitis? 

• Dry Skin 

• Red Patches or Bumps 

• Itchiness and swelling 

• May be crusty and leak 

What are the causes of Atopic Dermatitis? 

Perhaps caused by an allergic reaction to certain foods, it is likely a genetic condition spurned by a lack of moisture on the skin thus making it more prone to irritants. 

We provide testing, treatment and management for Eczema and other skin conditions at our clinics. 

Speak to our doctors today!


 
 

Everything You Need to Know About Molluscum Contagiosum

What is molluscum contagiosum?

Molluscum contagiosum is a fairly common skin infection or condition caused by a virus called Molluscum contagiosum, a type of poxvirus. It manifests as raised, pearly, flesh or skin coloured bumps which may sometimes have a central dimple (known as “central umbilication”).  

How does molluscum contagiosum spread?

Molluscum contagiosum is spread through skin contact with the virus. 
This can occur if you come into direct contact with someone else’s molluscum lesions, be it through sexual contact, or during contact sports like wrestling.


Unfortunately, the virus can survive on surfaces outside the body and can remain on infected surfaces like clothing, towels, gym equipment etc. Someone else who then comes into contact with these surfaces can get infected. 


In someone who is already infected, scratching or touching the lesions and then touching other parts of their body can result in the virus spreading. Shaving over infected skin can also spread the virus and worsen the infection. 


Once lesions resolve, an infected individual is no longer contagious. 

Who is affected by molluscum contagiosum?

Both children and adults alike can be infected by the virus. It is common amongst young children who may spread the virus through playing with each other. Lesions may occur anywhere – on the trunk, limbs, armpits, neck and possibly even face.


In adults, it is more commonly spread through sexual contact and may be considered an STD. The resultant lesions occur anywhere on the lower abdominal wall to the external genitalia and perineum. 


Individuals with weakened immune systems e.g. cancer patients or immunosuppressed patients, or individuals with skin conditions like eczema are at higher risk of being infected. 

What are the symptoms of molluscum contagiosum?

Molluscum contagiosum gives rise to shiny, pearly, skin coloured bumps which may range in number from few to many. These can occur anywhere on the body depending on where the virus inoculates the skin. These bumps are painless and can range in size from barely visible to several millimeters in size or larger. When lesions are larger, you may be able to notice a central dimple. 


In individuals with weakened immune system, lesions may be far more widespread e.g. >100 lesions.


Symptoms usually surface between 2 weeks to 2 months from initial infection, but can be delayed for up to half a year even. 

What are the complications of molluscum contagiosum?

Molluscum contagiosum is a benign and self-limiting condition. However, scratching lesions can result in scarring or secondary bacterial skin infections.

How is molluscum contagiosum diagnosed?

Molluscum contagiosum is diagnosed clinically i.e. by identification of the classic pearly skin bumps. If the lesions look atypical, a skin scraping of a bump may be useful – examination under a microscope will reveal “molluscum bodies” which confirms the diagnosis, but this is not routinely performed in most patients. 

How is molluscum contagiosum treated?

Treatment of molluscum contagiosum is not always necessary as the condition is self-limiting and lesions will eventually resolve by themselves without scarring. Most lesions will resolve within a year but can take longer than that. 
Treatment is recommended for:

  • Lesions around the genital or perianal region
  • If lesions are large 
  • In immunocompromised individuals with extensive lesions 

Various treatment methods available include:

  • Physical removal of lesions – with laser removal or cryotherapy (freezing with liquid nitrogen)
  • Topical creams or ointments e.g. podophyllotoxin application, imiquimod cream – but the efficacy of topical treatment may vary 
  • In immunocompromised individuals, usual treatment methods may fail and specific, special treatment (e.g. intralesional interferon) may be required 

How do I minimize my risk of getting molluscum contagiosum?

Good hygiene habits are crucial to minimize your risk of molluscum – regular hand washing, not sharing towels or sports equipment, wiping down equipment at the gym before usage, or covering equipment with your own towel rather than sitting or lying directly on it. Do not share razors or personal items. 


Avoid touching lesions if you are infected. Do not scratch, pick, or attempt to pop lesions. Shaving should also be avoided. Molluscum lesions should ideally be covered e.g. with a plaster to reduce the risk of transmission. 


Adults with lesions around their genital or perianal region should also avoid sexual contact until these have been treated. 


If you are concerned about any skin lumps or bumps and think you may have molluscum contagiosum, it is best to hold off attempting to treat it yourself (this may worsen the infection!) and see a doctor as soon as possible.


If you would like to find out more about molluscum contagiosum come down to any of our clinics for a consultation.

Also See: Skin Tag Removal Singapore @ S Aesthetics Clinic

Common Causes of Penile Itching and Pubic Itching

A myriad of conditions can cause a man to have penile itching or pubic itching. The excruciating urge to scratch and relieve that itch at such an inconvenient part of the body can be a major source of embarrassment to some. When severe, it can result in extreme discomfort in the day, and disrupt one’s sleep at night.

 

Here are some of the causes of Penile Itching and Pubic Itching:

 

6 Common Causes of Penile Itch:

 

1. Balanitis

Balanitis is a common infection of the foreskin and head of the penis. It is caused by bacteria or fungus, or a combination of both.

Symptoms include redness, swelling, discomfort, penile itching, and sometimes pain when passing urine.
(See: Penile Infection, Infection of the Penis)

When fungal infection (candidiasis) is present, a whitish cottage cheese-like discharge can be found under the foreskin. Balanitis is often hygiene related, but can also be caused by STDs. It is more likely to occur in uncircumcised males.  Watch: What are the causes of Foreskin Infection (Balanitis)

2. Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Itching of the penis (penile itching) is usually the first symptom and can occur in other areas such as the scrotum, groin, buttocks and anus.

Shortly after, tiny clusters of fluid-filled blisters or ulcers can develop and these are usually painful. Other symptoms include painful urination, enlarged groin lymph nodes, fever and body aches. The virus can lie dormant in the body for years without causing any symptoms, therefore some people may not even be aware that they are infected.

Read: Genital Blister, Genital Ulcers & Genital Warts & Causes of Oral Herpes (Cold Sore)

 

3. Genital Warts

Genital warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease. They appear as flesh-coloured growths that can cluster and resemble a cauliflower. Most of the time they do not have any symptoms but can sometimes itch. Bleeding can also occur during sexual intercourse.

Read: Genital Warts Treatment

 

4. Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction to contact with an irritant. This can happen anywhere on the body, including the penis. When this happens, it is usually caused by latex condom usage. The skin of the penis can turn red and itchy.

Sometimes the skin can break causing serious discharge, and bacterial infection can occur. Mild cases can be treated with a corticosteroid cream. Non-latex condoms can be used if you have a latex allergy.

 

5. Urethritis

One of the causes of penile itching is Urethritis. Urethritis refers to inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. This condition most often causes pain or itching in the penis, which worsens when passing urine.

Other symptoms include urethral discharge, urinary frequency or urgency, difficulty urinating, and blood in the semen. Urethritis is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection and can be sexually transmitted. See other STD Symptoms 

 

6. Psoriasis

Psoriasis on elbows.

Genital psoriasis often occurs alongside psoriasis of the skin. Skin cells develop at an extremely fast rate, resulting in the accumulation of skin cells on the skin surface, building up into itchy, red plaques of scaly skin. See Psoriasis Treatment

5 Common Causes of Pubic Itch

 

1. Jock Itch

Also known as tinea cruris, jock itch is a fungal infection of the skin in the genital area, groin and buttocks. The rash is usually itchy, red, scaly and ring-shaped. It tends to occur in people who sweat a lot and/or are overweight.

 

2. Pubic Lice

More commonly known as crabs, these are tiny parasitic insects that attach to the hair and skin in the pubic region. Pubic lice can be easily spread via sexual contact or other forms of close contact, and can spread to other body areas with coarse hair such as beards, armpits and chest hair. It is also possible for pubic lice to spread by using an infected person’s clothes, towels, or bed.

 

3. Folliculitis

This is a condition in which hair follicles become inflamed and is usually caused by bacterial or fungal infection, or inflammation from ingrown hair. Initially, the affected hair follicles may have small red bumps or white-headed pimples, but can swell and become painful and subsequently develop into crusty sores.

 

4. Contact Dermatitis

As mentioned earlier, this condition can also occur in the pubic area.

 

5. Molluscum Contagiosum (mo-LUS-kum kun-tay-jee-OH-sum)

Molluscum Contagiousum is a benign viral infection of the skin and is caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus, resulting in painless, small, shiny pearl-shaped lesions. They can happen anywhere on the body as a result of contact, but when they occur in the genital area, it is usually as a result of sexual contact. They can appear alone or in clusters. They usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes itch.

If you need to speak to our doctors, please visit our clinics.  Alternatively, you can email us hello@dtapclinic.com.sg or call us for an appointment.
Take Care.


Other Read:

Genital Blisters, Genital Warts and Genital Ulcers – Causes & Treatments

Genital blisters, genital warts, genital ulcers – more common than you think but invariably exceedingly distressing for the person suffering from them. Today we talk a little about the various causes for the above genital skin conditions.
Genital lumps, bumps and sores can be an alarming phenomenon for anyone. One day you notice a tiny little bump, or perhaps several bumps.
Now you’re not sure when they appeared – was your skin normal last week, or did you just never notice the bumps for a good duration? Or perhaps you notice what you thought was a little pimple or an ingrown hair follicle which happens from time to time because you shave. But now it’s burst, leaving a painful raw ulcer.

What are the Causes of Genital Blisters, Genital Warts and Genital Ulcers?

1) What are the Causes of Genital Blisters?

Genital blisters are small, fluid-filled bumps and can occur anywhere over the genital region.

a) Genital Herpes

One of the classic causes of genital blisters is genital Herpes, caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus.
Here’s a video about Herpes

Genital herpes has Several Stages:
Stage 1: Prodrome – the skin appears normal but you may feel an unusual sensation like a tingling or itching. This indicates that the virus is active and heralds an impending outbreak
Stage 2: Redness – you may notice some nonspecific red spots which may be uncomfortable or slightly painful.
Stage 3: Blisters – this is usually when people realise something is not right, Initially, these may resemble tiny pimples. They then grow in size and become fluid-filled and painful.
Stage 4: Ulcers – the blisters burst, leaving shallow, painful ulcers
Stage 5: Scabbing or crusting – a scab or crust forms over the ulcer, which eventually heals
Also, check out What is Oral Herpes & Cold Sore

b) Balanitis

In males, balanitis may sometimes present with tiny blisters. The term “balanitis” is a descriptive term which means inflammation of the head of the penis and foreskin. This usually manifests as skin redness, with some tiny blisters or whitish bumps, as well as possible itching/pain or discomfort.
There can be multiple causes of balanitis. The skin on the penis is no different from skin elsewhere on your body and redness, discomfort and irritation can be caused by many factors:

  • Infections such as fungal skin infections
  • Skin irritation caused by external factors like soaps (irritant or contact dermatitis)
  • Mechanical trauma in the form of excessive friction e.g. masturbation or sexual intercourse with insufficient lubrication
  • Poor hygiene
  • Sensitive skin e.g. in people prone to eczema or dry skin

Depending on the possible underlying trigger or cause, various topical creams may be useful. In some cases, skin swab tests or urine tests may be useful in checking for underlying infections.
Read more about What is a Penile Infection?

2) What are the Causes of Genital Warts?

a) Human Papilloma Virus

This is THE cause of genital warts. Genital warts are skin coloured, fleshy bumps which may occur singly or in clusters around the genital and anal region. They can range from tiny firm bumps to larger, irregular shaped bumps which are classically described as “cauliflower-like” in appearance.
The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted viral infection. There are many strains of HPV and they are transmitted through sexual contact. Some strains are responsible for genital warts, while other “high risk” strains can lead to an increased risk of cancers such as cervical, oral and anal cancers.
If you have warts, it effectively means you have been infected by at least one strain of HPV. If you are female and you are not already doing your regular PAP smear for cervical cancer, you should do a PAP smear with high risk HPV testing because an individual may have not just one but several strains of HPV. You can read more about PAP smears and cervical cancer screening.
There are various methods available for the treatment of genital warts, ranging from topical medications to freezing or cryosurgery electrosurgery. But one must be prepared that warts can unfortunately recur as the treatment for warts addresses the effects of a HPV infection but does not clear the virus from your body.
The best defence we have against genital warts is the HPV vaccine – Gardasil 9, which provides immunity against certain wart causing strains of HPV.

3) What are the Causes of Genital Ulcers?

When people think of genital ulcers, often the first few causes that spring to mind may be herpes or syphilis. However, genital ulcers can be due to other infections as well as rarer, non-infective causes such as autoimmune diseases.
This is why various tests are useful in differentiating the causes of genital ulcers. The treatment of choice varies drastically depending on what the underlying cause is.
Caused by Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)

  • Herpes Simplex Virus (Common)
  • Syphilis (Common)
  • Chancroid (Rare)
  • LGV (Rare)
  • Donovanosis (Rare)

Non-infective causes

  • Behcet’s (Autoimmune)
  • Crohn’s disease (Autoimmune)
  • Fixed drug eruption (rare causes)
  • Skin Cancer (rare causes)

a) Herpes Simplex Virus

(Painful shallow ulcers and blisters)

As mentioned earlier, both genital blisters and ulcers are different stages of a herpetic flare. A genital skin swab test for the presence of HSV DNA is helpful in confirming HSV as the cause of genital ulcers.

b) Syphilis

(Painless ulcers)

Syphilis can cause ulcers both during its primary and secondary stages.  A chancre, a painless round ulcer, occurs in primary syphilis, while in secondary syphilis, multiple painless ulcers may occur as well. One of the defining traits of a syphilitic ulcer is its painlessness.
These ulcers may be accompanied by other symptoms such as a rash elsewhere on the body.

C) Chancroid

(Multiple painful deep ulcers and swollen groin lymph nodes)
Chancroid is a painful ulcer which is frequently associated with enlarged and painful inguinal (groin) lymph nodes. These are located along your underwear line and may be felt as tender swollen lumps. There are usually several or multiple deep and painful ulcers.
This is caused by a bacterium called Hemophilus ducreyi, which is transmitted through sexual contact. Painful lymph nodes and negative test results for both Herpes and syphilis support this diagnosis. The good news is that antibiotic treatment can clear this up.

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)

Small ulcer, swollen groin lymph nodes, possible rectal pain

Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is an uncommon cause of genital ulcers. It is caused by the bacterium called Chlamydia trachomatis (serovars L1-3). This Chlamydia is different from the “subtype” of Chlamydia trachomat is that causes the common STD you are thinking about. A Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhoea PCR test will be about to detect the infection.
The ulcer it causes tends to be small and often goes unnoticed. The lymph node swelling is dramatic and painful and may even discharge pus.
If this was acquired through anal intercourse, inflammation of the anal and rectal canal (known as “proctitis”) can occur, causing rectal pain, bleeding and discharge and diarrhoea.

Donovanosis

Shallow beefy looking ulcers

This is again a rare cause of genital ulcers in the developed world. It is caused by a bacterium called Klebsiella granulomatis and causes shallow ulcers which may bleed easily. This is usually diagnosed with a punch biopsy, which is when a sample of skin tissue is removed for evaluation in the lab.

Other rare causes:

Autoimmune or inflammatory causes, skin cancers, drug reactions

“Autoimmune” diseases occur when your body’s immune system has a tendency to attack itself and one of the many manifestations can be genital ulcers. These are rare and treatment is by a specialist doctor. These ulcers will go away only with good control of the underlying disease.
Sometimes, a bad reaction to a certain medication may cause a persistent, painful ulcer.
Very rarely, genital ulcers may be due to cancer.

All in All

The good news is that most of the above mentioned causes for genital blisters, warts and ulcers can be treated. But an even better step would be to protect yourself from even developing these – safe sexual practices (using barrier protection, doing your regular sexual health screening, and getting the HPV vaccine) are your best bet against these.
Take Care!


  1. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  2. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  3. How Late Can a Period Be (Delayed Menstrual Cycle)
  4. What are the Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge?
  5. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  6. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  7. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  8. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  9. Everything You Need to Know About Herpes Simplex Virus
  10. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  11. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  12. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  13. 10 Common HIV related to Opportunistic Infections