Oral Gonorrhea / Throat Gonorrhea – What do you need to know

What is Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by a bacterium known as Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It thrives in warm and moist areas like the genital tracts, mouth and anus.

Gonorrhoea is a common STD in Singapore. MOH reports an incidence rate of 33.4 per 100,000 population in 2016.

What are the symptoms of Gonorrhea infection?

In men, up to 60% of patients with urogenital Gonorrhea might not have any symptoms (asymptomatic). Symptoms of urogenital Gonorrhea in male may include:

  • Discomfort, itchy along the urinary tract
  • Painful urination
  • Penile discharge
  • Testicular Pain (Epididymitis)

In women, up to 70% of patients with urogenital Gonorrhea might not have any symptoms (asymptomatic).

Symptoms of urogenital gonorrhea in female may include:

  • Vaginal itch, discharge or bleeding
  • Painful urination
  • Abdominal/Pelvic Pain
  • Pain during sexual intercourse

What are the complications of Gonorrhea infection?

Untreated Gonorrhea infections for females can lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease with abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding. It can cause infertility if the sexual organs are scarred by the infection. Gonorrhea can also lead to multiple complications during pregnancy for the infected mother and can even be passed on to her baby.

For men, untreated Gonorrhea infection can result in scarring of the urinary tract and urinary obstruction. Testicular/Epididymal infection can also cause infertility if left untreated.

What is Oral/Throat Gonorrhea and how is it transmitted?

Oral/Throat Gonorrhea is the infection of the pharynx by the same bacterium and it is commonly transmitted through oral sex. It is an oral STD.

How common is Oral/Throat Gonorrhea and what are the symptoms?

A recent study in 2016 has estimated the prevalence of throat Gonorrhea infection to be as high as 30% for straight woman, 15.5% for straight men and 17% for homosexual men.

The most common presentation of throat Gonorrhea is a sore throat. Some patients may have swollen neck lymph nodes. However, the majority of patients do not present with any symptoms at all.

Oral ulcers are not a presentation of throat Gonorrhea. If oral/peri-oral ulcers are present, other STDs such as Herpes and Syphilis need to be considered.

I do not practice oral sex. Why should I be screened for Throat Gonorrhea?

Throat Gonorrhea transmission can occur even in the absence of reported oral sex.

Even though the majority of throat gonorrhea are asymptomatic, in 0.5% to 3% of infected patients the bacterium can penetrate the mucosae and enter the bloodstream, leading to a widespread infection. This blood-borne invasion (Disseminated Gonococcal Infection) can lead to to a variety of dangerous conditions including:

  • Multiple joint inflammation
  • Tendon Sheath inflammation
  • Skin dermatitis
  • Joint Infections

Hence, even in the absence of oral sex or symptoms, patients with new or multiple sex partners or a sex partner with a diagnosed STD should go for STD screening.

How is Gonorrhea screening performed?

Gonorrhea Testing. NAAT (Nucleic Acid Amplification Test) is routinely performed to detect N.gonorrhoeae. The doctor will swab the suspected area of infection (throat/anus/vagina) or request a urine sample for diagnosis of gonorrhea infection. It has been shown to be superior to traditional methods of culturing the bacteria with far more rapid results.

How is Gonorrhea treated and how can I prevent Gonorrhea infection?

Gonorrhea is treated with a single antibiotic injection and a course of oral antibiotics.

Gonorrhea transmission can be prevented by observing safe sexual practices. This includes the use of barrier protections like condoms or dental dams, cutting down the number of sexual partners as well as ensuring regular STD screening for both the patient and their sexual partners.

Next read: WHAT IS ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT GONORRHEA OR SUPER GONORRHEA?


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What is Antibiotic Resistant Gonorrhea or Super Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is a sexually-transmitted infection caused by the bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. 

Antibiotic-resistant Gonorrhea refers to strains of Gonorrhea that are not killed by antibiotics that were previously effective in killing off these bacteria. 

In the 1980s, penicillins and tetracyclines could kill off Gonorrhea. By the 1990s, these drugs were no longer effective and Fluoroquinolones were recommended as the first line treatment. By the 2000s, Fluoroquinolones resistance was commonplace and only one group of antibiotics remains as an effective treatment for Gonorrhea – Cephalosporins. By now, certain strains of Gonorrhea that are resistant to cephalosporins have already been detected and that is worrisome because if these medications become useless, we might face a situation where we cannot clear gonorrhea from a person’s body. 

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What drugs are super gonorrhea resistant to?

Super Gonorrhea is the colloquial term for strains of Gonorrhea that are extensively drug-resistant, with high-level resistance to the current recommended treatment for gonorrhea (ceftriaxone and azithromycin) including resistance to penicillin, sulphonamides, tetracycline, fluoroquinolones, macrolides.


What causes super gonorrhea? 

Super Gonorrhea is a problem that we have created. 

The unrestricted access, inappropriate selection and overuse of antibiotics over many decades has allowed the strains of gonorrhea to genetically mutate in such a way that they are no longer affected by these antibiotics. Extra genital infections in the rectum and throat may also play an important role in the development of resistant strains as gonorrhea can interact and exchange genetic material with other co-infections in these places.


How common is Super Gonorrhea?

Super Gonorrhea has been reported by several countries including France, Japan, Spain, the UK and Australia. The American CDC has not received any reports of verified clinical treatment failures to any cephalosporin in the United States to date. 


How does Gonorrhea spread?

Gonorrhea can be spread through sexual contact with the penis, vagina, mouth, or anus of an infected partner. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. Even if you have had gonorrhea in the past and was treated, you can still get reinfected again if you are exposed to it again. 


What are the symptoms of super gonorrhea?

The symptoms of super gonorrhea are the same as regular gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can infect different areas of the body. Most symptoms present within 1-2 weeks after exposure.

In males, the most commonly infected site is the genitourinary system. It can present with symptoms such as pain on passing urine, penile discharge, swelling at the tip of the penis and scrotal pain and swelling.

In females, the most commonly infected site is also the genitourinary system and and present with symptoms such as vaginal discharge, pain on passing urine, intermenstrual bleeding, painful intercourse, and mild lower abdominal pain

Gonorrhea can also infect other areas of the body such as the rectum, causing rectal pain, itching, discharge, or tenesmus. If gonorrhea infects the throat, you can get a persistent sore throat. Gonorrhea can also infect the eyes, causing conjunctivitis which may present with eye pain, discharge, and redness. If gonorrhea spreads by blood to the rest of the body including the brain, heart, bone, joints, skin and liver, this is termed Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI). While rare, DGI can be deadly and have long term complications. 


Does Gonorrhea always have symptoms?

Gonorrhea can have little to no symptoms at all in some people. That is the reason why it is so important to screen for STIs with every sexual encounter. 

A study has reported that more than 80% of people (both males and females) with Gonorrhea can have no symptoms. Do not wait for symptoms to appear before you screen for STIs. Do it regularly with every new sexual encounter. 

Also read: Rapid STD Test for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea PCR


What are other STDs that do not display symptoms and have serious complications if left untreated?

All STIs can have no symptoms at all. Because people do not experience any symptoms, they think that they do not have an STI and thus the spread of STIs continues. Other STIs we regularly test for include other urinary STIs such as Chlamydia, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonas. What we can test for in the blood are STIs such as HIV, Syphilis, Herpes and Hepatitis B and C.


What happens if gonorrhea is treated effectively?

If gonorrhea is treated effectively (with the proper antibiotics), your symptoms should clear up, and subsequent follow up tests to test for clearance should come back as negative for gonorrhea.


What are the complications of Gonorrhea?

In females, untreated gonorrhea may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). This is an infection of the fallopian tubes, uterus, and cervix. If left untreated, PID may cause permanent damage to the reproductive tract, which may lead to infertility. It may also lead to long-term pelvic pain.

Males with untreated gonorrhea may develop a condition called epididymitis. This condition is characterized by inflammation of the tubes near the testicles that carry semen. It can also lead to infertility. 

DGI is another complication of gonorrhea as well. 


What happens if you have drug resistant gonorrhea? Can I get rid of Antibiotic Resistant Gonorrhea?

If you have drug resistant gonorrhea, your doctor may opt to treat you with antibiotics that hopefully are effective against this strain of gonorrhea. Antibiotic sensitivity testing for that strain should be done. If it is truly multi-drug resistant, a referral to an infectious diseases specialist is appropriate, and they may have to treat you with antibiotics that are reserved for the worst kinds of infections. 


How do you reduce your risk of contracting these STIs?

Abstinence is the only way to reduce your risk to zero.

If you are sexually active, use barrier protection such as condoms, the right way. You can also speak to your partner to get tested for STIs before engaging in sexual activity.  A mutually monogamous relationship also carries a lower risk of STIs than having multiple sexual partners.

If you are sexually active with multiple sexual partners, get yourself tested regularly and treated. The presence of one STI can increase your risk of contracting another one more easily. Most STIs can easily be detected through swabs, urine or blood tests at your doctors. These are rather pain free and minimally invasive, so there should be no fear to get tested!

There are some STIs that are preventable through vaccinations. Vaccines are available against certain strains of HPV that may cause warts, cervical, anal and penile cancer. Effective vaccines against Hepatitis B are available as well.

Also read: What is HPV (Human Papilloma Virus)?


How do I find out if I have been infected with Super Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhea is often diagnosed using a PCR test. This test can give results very fast and determine if a person is infected with Gonorrhea or not. However, this test cannot differentiate between regular Gonorrhea and Super Gonorrhea.

For that, a test called Gonorrhea Culture and Sensitivity has to be conducted. This test takes a longer time as the Gonorrhea bacteria has to be grown on a plate and tested against various antibiotics. This test is also less sensitive as for various reasons, sometimes the Gonorrhea bacteria cannot grow.

Also read: What Is Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhea PCR STD Testing?

If you think you may have been exposed to Super Gonorrhea, you have to see your Doctor immediately. DTAP clinics focus on STD screening and STD treatment. We offer rapid PCR testing for Gonorrhea (next day results) as well as culture tests to detect multi-drug resistant (Super) Gonorrhea. 

Speak to your doctor if you have any questions regarding Gonorrhea or other STDs.


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Apakah Simtom HIV Dan STD?

Hai, Saya Dr. Taufiq dari Dr. Tan dan Partners, dan hari ini saya ingin bercakap mengenai simtom penyakit kelamin atau STD, dan HIV.

[Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu]

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Apakah simtom HIV dan STD?

Penyakit kelamin atau STD berpunca dari beberapa jenis virus, bakteria atau kuman yang boleh menjangkiti seseorang melalui hubungan seks dengan pasangan yang sudah pun mempunyai jangkitan tersebut. Penyakit HIV pula berpunca dari virus yang dikenali sebagai Human Immunodeficiency Virus, dan ia juga tersebar melalui hubungan seks.


Simtom-simtom STD

Simtom-simtom STD boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga jenis – simtom semasa kencing, simtom pada kulit dan simtom umum. Simtom-simtom STD boleh mengambil masa yang berbeza untuk muncul – ada yang mungkin seawal 3 hari selepas hubungan seks, ada juga yang mengambil masa beberapa minggu atau bulan untuk menjadi jelas. Ada pula sesetengah orang yang dijangkiti STD, tetapi mereka tidak mengalami apa-apa simtom yang nyata.


Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP)

Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP) adalah penyakit STD yang paling kerap dijangkiti. Antara simtom 2 termasuk pengeluaran cecair dari kemaluan.

Ada juga yang dijangkiti tapi tidak menunjukkan apa2 simtom. Jangkitan ini juga boleh membawa kepada kemandulan.
Di klinik kami di somerset, ada meneyediakan khidmat pemeriksaan CGP pantas.

Anda boleh mendapat keputusan dalam masa 24 jam. Pengesanan awal dapat membolehkan rawatan awal.

Simtom-simtom HIV pula mungkin berbeza bergantung pada individu dan peringkat penyakit.


Simtom-simtom HIV

Bagi seseorang yang mengalami jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, mereka mungkin dapat melihat simtom-simtom tertentu dalam masa 2 hingga 4 minggu pertama.

Simtom yang paling ketara pada peringkat awal ialah selsema yang serius, yang selalu disifatkan sebagai “selsema yang paling buruk yang pernah dialami”.

Keadaan ini dikenali sebagai sindrom retroviral akut, atau ARS. Sindrom jangka pendek ini disifatkan dengan sakit tekak, ruam, keletihan, sakit-sakit badan dan sakit kepala. Simtom-simtom HIV boleh berlarutan dari beberapa hari hingga ke
beberapa minggu.

Selepas jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, simtom-simtom penyakit ini mungkin hilang. Tapi awas, jangkitan HIV mungkin sudah mara ke peringkat kedua yang dipanggil peringkat latensi. Pada peringkat ini, virus HIV membiak di dalam tubuh badan, tanpa menunjukkan apa-apa kesan yang jelas seperti simtom- simtom yang telah saya katakan tadi.

Peringkat terakhir jangkitan HIV dikenali sebagai penyakit AIDS. Pada peringkat ini, fungsi perlindungan dalaman atau sistem imun badan akan mula merosot.

Seseorang yang mempunyai penyakit AIDS akan lebih senang jatuh sakit, dan mungkin juga mati kerana sebab-sebab yang pada asasnya, tidak serius.


HIV Rapid Test

Untuk mengesan jangkitan HIV, ujian pantas HIV (HIV Rapid Test) hanya boleh diambil sekurang-kurangnya 14 hari selepas anda terdedah pada aktiviti berisiko tinggi.Ini adalah ujian generasi ke 4 dimana ia boleh mengesan HIV
seawall 14 hari.

Ujian generasi ke 3 pula memakan masa 90 hari selepas pendedahan sebelum boleh mengesan HIV.


PrEP dan PEP

PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) adalah ubat yang diambil untuk mengelak daripada menjangktii virus HIV. PEP (Post exposure Prophylaxis) pula adalah ubat yang diambil setelah terdedah pada virus HIV.

PrEP biasanya digalakkan bagi mereka yang berisiko tinggi untuk mendapat HIV seperti golongan yang mempunyai pasangan yang berbeza, lelaki yang berhubungan sesama lelaki lain.

PEP pula di galakkan bagi golongan yang terdedah pada HIV. Contohnya kondom yang pecah sewaktu bersetubuh, berhubungan dengan pekerja seks tanpa kondom dan pendedahan pada HIV melalui suntikan jarum. (needlestick injury).

Klinik kami di daerah Orchard Road di Somerset ada menyediakan kedua- dua jenis ujian HIV serta perkhidmatan PrEP dan PEP.


Apa itu HPV

HPV atau Human Papilloma Virus adalah sejenis virus yang merebak melalui sentuhun kulit. Ia boleh menyebabkan ketuat (warts) serta kanser pangkal rahim (cervix).

Kini ada vaksin yang bleh melindungi anda daripada 9 jenis virus HPV. Ia dinamakan Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine. Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine adalah satu-satunya vaksin yang boleh mengelak daripada kanser. Ia digalakkan bagi lelaki dan perempuan berumur 12 tahun ke atas.

Kami ada menyediakan khidmat vaksin Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine di klinik kami di daerah Orchard Road di Somerset.

Saya telah pun memberikan penerangan ringkas tentang penyakit STD, HIV dan AIDS.

Sebelum saya akhiri, saya ingin memberi beberapa pesanan.


Kesimpulannya

  • Pertama, saya ingin menegaskan bahawa simtom-simtom seperti selsema, sakit tekak, sakit badan dan sebagainya, sama seperti simtom-simtom untuk penyakit biasa. Jadi, janganlah tergopoh-gapah untuk menganggap bahawa awak telah dijangkiti penyakit HIV hanya kerana awak ada simtom-simtom tersebut. Pada masa yang sama, saya juga ingin mengingatkan bahawa ramai orang yang dijangkiti penyakit HIV tidak menunjukkan apa-apa simtom yang jelas dan nyata.

Jika awak berasa ragu tentang kesihatan awak, adalah wajar untuk berjumpa dengan doktor yang bertauliah untuk mendapatkan pemeriksaan dan kepastian.

  • Kedua, mujurnya, kini kita sudah boleh merawat dan mengawal penyakit HIV dengan lebih berkesan. Sekiranya anda mendapatkan rawatan untuk jangkitan HIV, anda mempunyai peluang untuk hidup dengan sihat, dan bebas dari simtom-simtom ini untuk masa yang lama.
  • Ketiga, anda hanya akan dapat mengesahkan penyakit HIV dan kesihatan anda melalui ujian khas, tiada jalan lain untuk mendapatkan kepastian ini.

Sekiranya anda bimbang tentang kemungkinan pendedahan, atau anda mengalami simtom-simtom STD dan HIV, sila lawati klinik kami untuk penilaian dan ujian yang betul. Kami sedia membantu untuk memberi nasihat dan rawatan
yang diperlukan.

[Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu]

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Contact us


Dr. Tan & Partners @ Somerset
Alamat:

1 Grange Rd,
#10-08 Orchard Building,
Singapore 239693

Telepon: +65 6262 0762

Jam Buka:

Senin sampai selasa:
9:30am–2pm & 3pm –6:30pm

Jumat: 9:30am–1pm & 2pm –6:30pm

Sabtu: 9:00am–1pm

Ditutup pada hari Minggu dan hari libur nasional

Dr. Tan & Partners @ Novena

Alamat:

10 Sinaran Drive,

#08-31 Novena Medical Centre,

Singapore 307506

Telepon: +65 6397 2095

Jam Buka:

Senin sampai Jumat: 8.30 am – 5.30 pm

Sabtu: 9.00 am – 1.00 pm

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Tag: hiv test

Sexually Transmitted Infections: More Than 1 Million New Cases Every Single Day

The World Health Organisation (WHO) released a report in June 2019 stating that every single day, there are more than 1 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among people aged 15-49 years. These are just from 4 infections – chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis.

This amounts to more than 376 million new cases annually. This is probably a lower number than the actual prevalence in the global population, as these are just the reported cases. On average, approximately 1 in 25 people globally have at least one of these STIs, with some experiencing multiple infections at the same time.

 

About these 4 STIs

Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea

Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are bacterial infections that can be spread through sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal or anal). They can be asymptomatic in some people, but in others can cause urinary symptoms such as penile or vaginal pain, urethral discharge, pain on passing urine, urinary frequency and urgency.

They can also cause irregular spotting in females. The long term complications of untreated chlamydia and gonorrhoea are pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in females and infertility in both sexes.

 Also Read:

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by infection by a parasite transmitted during sexual intercourse. The parasite usually infects the lower genital tract (vagina or penis). It can also cause symptoms such as those mentioned above.

Also Read: STD Symptoms in Women

 

Syphilis

Syphilis is a bacterial infection that can result in genital ulcers and a rash. In its later stages, syphilis can affect your eyes, ears, heart, nerves, bones, kidneys and liver. It can cause serious cardiovascular and neurological disease and even death.

Also Read: Signs & Symptoms of Syphilis: Painless STD Sores & Rashes

All four diseases are associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Transmission of these diseases during pregnancy can lead to serious consequences for babies including stillbirth, neonatal death, low birth-weight and prematurity, sepsis, blindness, pneumonia, and congenital deformities.

Also Read:

It is important to note that most cases are asymptomatic, meaning people may not have any symptoms at all and are unaware they have an infection if they do not test for these STIs.

 

How Do We Go About Managing These STIs?

These 4 infections are easily detectable, preventable and curable.

STD Testing: There are multiple ways to detect these STIs, but in general, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Trichomonas can be detected with a swab test in females or a urine test in males. Syphilis can be detected with a blood test. Read: Comprehensive STD Screening

STD Treatment: After being treated with antibiotics, these infections can be fully cleared from the body. However, because a significant proportion of people can be without symptoms, these infections can go untreated in a person for long periods of time, wreaking havoc on their genitourinary and reproductive tract. These people can also spread these infections to other people, exacerbating this persistent and endemic health threat.

A point to note is that some strains of these infections (Gonorrhoea in particular) are developing multi-drug resistance and evolving into “super-bugs” that are increasingly difficult to treat with current antibiotics. Significant resources are being directed to research in this area, but the most important thing is to get tested and treated early.

 

Who Should Get Tested?

If you have never been tested for STIs before, but have been exposed to sexual encounters in the past, we would recommend you to get tested.

 We also recommend anyone who has had a new sexual encounter to get tested, even if you had used condoms. While it is true that condoms greatly reduce the risk of transmission of STIs, it does not absolutely foolproof as unsurprisingly in the real world they are not always used perfectly.

 Of course, if you have any symptoms, please do get tested and treated.

 

Other STIs

The above 4 STIs are just 4 of the many STIs that you can acquire through sexual contact. There are other STIs that we are concerned about. Other STIs such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Chancroid, Molluscum, Pubic Lice and Scabies are some others that we are also concerned about.

It is important that sexually active individuals read up and learn about these STIs to know the signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission to better protect themselves. Knowing more about these STIs will also encourage a person to get treated early should they develop such symptoms.

 

How Do You Reduce Your Risk of Contracting These STIs?

Abstinence is the only way to reduce your risk to zero.

If you are sexually active, use barrier protection such as condoms, the right way. You can also speak to your partner to get tested for STIs before engaging in sexual activity.  A mutually monogamous relationship also carries a lower risk of STIs than having multiple sexual partners.

 If you are sexually active with multiple sexual partners, get yourself tested regularly and treated. The presence of one STI can increase your risk of contracting another one more easily. Most STIs can easily be detected through swabs, urine or blood tests at your doctors. These are rather pain-free and minimally invasive, so there should be no fear to get tested!

There are some STIs that are preventable through vaccinations. HPV Vaccines are available against certain strains of HPV that may cause warts, cervical, anal and penile cancer. Effective vaccines against Hepatitis B are available as well.

 

Conclusion

In summary, the WHO has highlighted the 4 STIs specifically as they are the one which can be completely eradicated from the body if treated properly. But there are other STIs that we should be concerned about too. The best thing you can do is to protect yourself against these STIs through the above-mentioned suggestions.

Get yourself tested regularly if you have new sexual partners. If you have any symptoms, get yourself treated early, and avoid sexual contact until you have been treated and cleared by the doctor as well. 

Take Care & Stay safe!


Other Interesting Reads:

  1. An Overview of STD – From an STD Doctor
  2. The HIV Pro-Virus DNA Test can be done 10 days post exposure.
  3. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  4. Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?
  5. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  6. Sexual Health Advice for Travellers
  7. Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?
  8. What You Need To Know about HPV, Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear & HPV Vaccination
  9. 11 Causes of Dyspareunia (Pain During Intercourse)
  10. What is HPV Vaccination (Gardasil 9)
  11. 10 Causes of abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps
  12. An Overview of Gonorrhoea
  13. Genital Warts: The Cauliflower-Like Lumps on the Genitals
  14. Syphilis Symptoms (Painless STD Sores & STD Rashes) 


Also see: wart removal singapore, hiv screening, std check up singapore

STD Risk from Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men

Anal sex, not only consists of penile insertion into the anus (bottom) but also allowing your partner to use his mouth on the anus (analingus) or insertion of fingers and sex toys into the anus.
It is highly recommended to use condoms and lube during anal sex to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD).

What is the STD that you can potentially get from anal sex for Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (MSM)?

1. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea

The reason why we clumped them together in this article is that chlamydia gonorrhoea can present with similar symptoms and may present together in certain patients. These bacteria’s can present in a few ways:

Anal Discharge

Discharge is a term used when liquid is seen coming out of the anus. This is usually very minimal and patients usually notice a small number of stains on their underwear. In very rare situations, the volume may be high and appear yellow in colour. see more of Rectal Gonorrhea

Anal Discomfort

Patients usually present with mild discomfort in the anal region and some of them describe it as a feeling of constant urge to poo. It is never painful, and if patients present with severe pain, it is usually due to haemorrhoids or a tear at the opening of the anus.

Anal Bleeding

This is very rare. If patients present with bleeding, it is usually due to piles or a tear at the opening of the anus.

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

The insertive partner (or top) may present with a burning sensation when passing urine, urethral discharge, an increase in urinary frequency, waking up in the middle of the night to pass urine and the feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. However, keep in mind a large proportion of men may not show these symptoms.
It is best to get tested via anal swab or urine test for these bacteria if you have had an exposure as it can be easily treated with antibiotics.
Prostate infection and inflammation can be due to non-Sexually Transmitted infections & Sexually Transmitted Infections.
We provide Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhea PCR Screening (Next Day Results).

2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)

HPV is, in fact, one of the most common STD’s out there but is less well known. It is usually transmitted through skin to skin contact, through contact with infected mucous membranes or bodily fluids. In other words, condoms will not protect you from this virus. There are many different strains and can cause anal cancer and cauliflower-like growths in the anus and surrounding skin. It is recommended to see a doctor screen for anal warts, or other genital warts because some warts may be inside the anus and may not be visualised externally.
Warts can be treated and you should see a men’s health doctor if you have any suspicious lumps. It is highly recommended for men who engage in anal sex to get the HPV vaccine.
Rapid HPV Testing (Next Day Results) is available in our clinics.
Check out: How to Get Rid of Warts

Read: Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?

3. Herpes

There are 2 kinds of herpes virus, HSV type 1 and HSV type 2. These viruses can be easily passed through skin to skin contact, which means condoms have a very limited to a negligible role in reducing the transmission. They usually present in the area of contact with multiple, small and painful ulcers or blisters within a week or sometime months after exposure. If there is any suspicion, the doctor will perform a dry swab to diagnose the lesion. Unfortunately, there is no cure but there is treatment available for flares.

4. Molluscum Contagiosum

Molluscum Contagiosum is caused by a virus call Poxvirus and presented with lesions that may appear anywhere on the body. The lesions are small, raised and usually white or flesh-coloured with a dimple or pit in the centre. The size can range from 2 to 5 mm in diameter and may be itchy or sore. This virus can be passed through skin to skin contact or thru contaminated materials such as clothing, towels, pool equipment or even toys. The good news is that these lesions usually do not cause long-term medical problems and can be easily treated. Water Wart Removal is available in our clinics.

5. Syphilis

Syphilis an STD which is transmitted thru any form of sexual contact. It is caused by a bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. This disease can present in many ways, from a single, big and painless ulcer in the area of sexual contact, to rashes around the body and palms. In certain cases, they can cause an infection in the brain and spinal cord. This symptom can present any time between 9 to 90 days after being infected. The good thing is this disease is usually curable with antibiotics.

6. HIV

The riskiest sexual behaviour for getting and transmitting HIV in men is anal sex. The receptive anal sex is much riskier as the bottom partner’s risk is 13 folds higher than the insertive partner. This virus can pass through blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid (Pre-cum) or rectal fluids.
This risk is higher when recreational drugs are used.
Condoms and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), if used consistently can reduce the risk of getting HIV significantly. The condom reduces the risk of getting HIV by 63% for the insertive partner and 72% for the receptive partner if they engaged in anal sex with an HIV infected partner.
Yes. it is not 100%!!. PrEP can reduce the risk of getting HIV by more than 90%. If you think you have been potentially exposed to the virus and did not use a condom, you can see a doctor within 72 hours of the exposure to start the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment.
Also, a regular HIV Test is recommended if you are sexually active with unknown HIV status partners.
If you think you have had an exposure to HIV or any form of STD thru risky sexual activity, it is recommended you get tested and seek treatment early to reduce any untoward complications and risk of passing it to your partner.
Take Care!
Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. The HIV Pro-Virus DNA Test can be done 10 days post exposure.
  2. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  3. What are the Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge?
  4. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  5. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  6. 7 FAQs HIV Preexposure prophylaxis (HIV PrEP)
  7. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  8. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  9. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  10. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  11. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  12. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  13. 10 Common HIV related Opportunistic Infections

What is Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhea PCR STD Testing?

Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are 2 common Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) which can infections in various parts of the body such as penis, vaginal, anus, throat and eyes.
Most commonly you will experience discharges from the penis/ vaginal or discomfort when passing urine.
However, the majority of men may not have any symptoms and for women, 50% may also not have symptoms.
The infection will stay in the body for a few weeks after the symptoms have been treated.
In rare instances, Gonorrhoea and Chlamydia can continue to cause damage to the body, specifically the urethra and testicles. Pain may also spread to the rectum. An overview of Gonorrhoea

At Dr Tan and Partners, we recognize that symptoms like abnormal vaginal discharges, penile discharge or discharge from the rectum can cause quite a bit of worry.
Thus, we have introduced a Rapid STD testing (next day results) that can detect these 2 infections within a day.
Which means that you can get the necessary treatment quickly as well.
All it requires is a urine sample or swab from the vaginal/ throat/ anal

This Rapid STD Testing detects for the presence of the DNA of the 2 organisms, making the test very sensitive

If you think you may have symptoms suggestive of chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection or if you think you may have been exposed and you are interested in an STD Screening, please visit a doctor for further evaluation.

Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  3. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  4. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  5. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  6. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  7. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  8. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  9. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  10. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  11. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  12. 10 Common HIV related Opportunistic Infections

An Overview of Gonorrhoea Symptoms

Gonorrhoea symptoms in Men & Women can include discharge, painful urination and itch. Some people who are infected may not display any signs or symptoms.

What is the Cause of Gonorrhea?

Gonorrhoea is one of the most common Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) in women.  It can cause infections in the vagina, rectum, and throat.
Gonorrhoea is known to be easily transmittable via both penetrative and oral sex. It can infect the reproductive system and less commonly, the throat or eyes. A maternal to child transmission is also possible here.
Similar to Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. Gonorrhoea is caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

In women, gonorrhoea affects the cervix and its functions 90% of the time.

via GIPHY

What are the risk factors for contracting Gonorrhea?

  • Multiple sexual partners
  • New sexual partner
  • Unprotected sex
  • Men that have sex with Men (MSM)
  • A sexual partner who has an STI
  • Having concurrent STI

What are the Gonorrhoea Symptoms:

Gonorrhoea can be a silent infection in most of the population. Often time, women and men with Gonorrhea will not display any signs and symptoms.
Gonorrhoea Symptoms & Chlamydia Symptoms can be overlaping.

The Symptoms of gonorrhoea can differ between men and women.

via GIPHY

Gonorrhoea Symptoms in women:

Gonorrhoea Symptoms in Men

  • Penile discharge – colour may vary from white, yellow, green, or occasionally blood-tinged
  • Pain when passing urine
  • Pain in the testicles – rare

Read more about what are the other causes of penile infection & foreskin infection
Depending on the nature of the sexual activity and the severity of the infection, both men and women may experience pain, itchiness or discharge from the anus. They may also have pain, swelling, irritation, or discharge from the eye or both eyes (otherwise diagnosed as conjunctivitis).

How to Treat Gonorrhoea?

As with most bacterial infections, gonorrhoea is treated with antibiotics. The first choice is a wide spectrum antibiotic. It is, however, proving to be getting more resistant to antibiotics.
Gonorrhoea is also challenging to treat because most people who have this STI also have concurrent sexually transmitted illnesses like chlamydia.

via GIPHY
Also, like with any other sexually transmitted illness, treatment must be extended to all partners, and once treatment is completed, routine testing is highly recommended in view of relapse due to the increasing resistant nature of the gonorrhoea bacteria.
Abstinence is recommended during treatment.

What are the Complications of Gonorrhoea

Rarely, untreated gonorrhoea can spread throughout the body giving rise to skin pustules, infection of the joints (fingers, ankles, knees, and toes), brain or heart valves.

Complications of Gonorrhea in Men

More commonly, in men, infections of the epididymis, prostate and urethra are noted. Gonorrhoea can cause subfertility in some patients.

Complications of Gonorrhea in Women

In women, similar to other sexually transmitted diseases, untreated gonorrhoea may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (via an ascending infection involving the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries) in up to 20% of patients. With inflammation, scarring and/or multiple infections, issues of subfertility and extra-uterine pregnancy will arise.
More annoyingly is the chronic, relapsing pelvic pain. This pain is characteristically stubborn and may require multiple analgesic medications in some women.
Read more about Herpes: Everything You Need to Know!

How is Gonorrhea Test Performed?

In most cases, usually for men, a urine sample will be required for the test. However, for female patients, ideally, the doctor will need to take a sample from the cervix ( neck of the womb).
For this, patients will lie down on the examination couch with knees bent and a small plastic instrument called a speculum will be used to open the vagina, then a soft brush will be used to collect a sample from the cervix. This procedure is very quick and painless, with only some minimal
discomfort.
Depending on sexual history, gonorrhoea swab may also be taken from the throat and rectum, in both men and women.

Any preparation needed before the test?

Vaginal douching and rectal douches, as well as creams, should be avoided 1 day before the test.
For the urine test, it is best to not urinate at least 2 hours before the sample is taken.

How long will the results take?

The test is usually performed together with chlamydia screening and results will be ready by the NEXT DAY. This allows treatment to be given as soon as possible when needed.
We can provide Rapid Chlamydia and Gonorrhea STD Testing. STD Test result will be available the following day.
If you are interested in getting a Rapid STD Testing or treatment for gonorrhoea, please visit our clinics and speak to our male and female doctors.
That’s All Folks!


Other Interesting Reads:

  1. An Overview of STD – From an STD Doctor
  2. What are the Signs & Symptoms of HIV and AIDS?
  3. STD Symptoms
  4. What You Need To Know about HPV, Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear & HPV Vaccination
  5. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? Improv Erection with Pills
  6. 11 Causes of Dyspareunia (Pain During Intercourse)
  7. What are the Causes of Genital Ulcers, Genital Warts and Genital Blisters
  8. What is HPV Vaccination (Gardasil 9)
  9. How to Get Rid of Genital Warts?
  10. 10 Causes of abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps
  11. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  12. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  13. 7 FAQs HIV Preexposure prophylaxis (HIV PrEP)
  14. What is the Treatment for Cold Sores? What causes Cold Sores?
  15. Genital Warts: The Cauliflower-Like Lumps on the Genitals
  16. Syphilis Symptoms (Painless STD Sores & STD Rashes)