HPV stands for human papillomavirus. HPV is usually harmless and goes away by itself, but some types can lead to cancer or genital warts.
Here are 10 things about HPV.
1. HPV is incredibly common.
and It is estimated that 8 out of 10 people will get HPV at some point in their lifetime
2. Next… How is HPV spread?
HPV is one of the most common STI and is spread through genital or skin-to-skin contact. The virus can be spread even when no symptoms are evident.
3. The third point is that HPV doesn’t necessarily stay with you forever.
Patients commonly assume that HPV is a lifelong infection that will stay with them always. Most HPV infections clear up on their own and do not cause any problems. However, overtime persistent infection by certain HPV types can cause cancer and other diseases such as warts.
4. There are many strains of the virus.
HPV is not just one virus, but consists of over hundreds straina . Each virus is labeled with a number to distinguish it from the others, and different viruses can target different areas of the body, causing differentdiseases in humans.
HPV is most commonly associated with a risk for certain cancers, including cervical cancer, or oral cancers which involves, the base of the tongue or tonsils.
5. Next in Cervical cancer
HPV causes more than 99% of cervical cancer cases and Approximately 400 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually in Singapore.
Cervical cancer ranks* as the 8th leading cause of female cancer in Singapore.
A more sensitive test like the HPV DNA test can be used to detect certain high risk strains of HPV that can lead to cervical cancer
7. HPV in Men
Men can get HPV and pass it to their partners. HPV has been shown to increase the risk of anal cancer, penile cancer , oral and throat cancers in men.
8. There Is Also a Vaccine that Can Protect You
The HPV vaccine has been shown to be highly effective in protecting people against cervical cancer and warts..
Individuals already infected with HPV should still get vaccinated because the vaccine may protect against additional strains of hpv. However, for maximum benefit, vaccination should occur before an individual becomes exposed to the virus.
Thus it is recommended for preteens to get the vaccine at an early age.
Recently the US Food and Drug Administration expanded its approval of the HPV vaccine to include men and women up to 45 years old As an effort to protect more people from several types of cancer caused by HPV.
9. After HPV Vaccination…
Women should continue to get regular Pap screenings because the vaccine though reduces risk of cervical cancer, does not protect against all HPV types.
10. To Sum Up HPV
The best thing you can do is stay proactive and look after your well-being.
“HPV is something both women and men should be aware and well-informed about, protecting yourself and your loved ones,”
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/hpv-singapore.png6931356Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2020-08-06 16:57:382022-06-13 16:03:5810 Things about HPV (Video)
HPV adalah virus yang boleh menyebabkan penyakit kelamin (sexually transmitted disease, STD) dan adalah penyakit STD yang paling kerap berlaku di dunia. Jangkitan HPV dianggarkan berlaku di kalangan sekurang-kurangnya 80 peratus wanita dan lelaki yang telah bermula hubungan seks.
Apakah gejala atau simptom jangkitan HPV?
Kebanyakan orang yang dijangkiti HPV tidak mempunyai apa-apa gejala kerana sistem ketahanan (imun) badan dapat menyingkirkan virus HPV sebelum apa-apa gejala berlaku.
Walaubagaimanapun, bagi individu yang mempunyai simptom, ketuat (genital warts) boleh dilihat di kawasan alat kelamin. Ketuat juga boleh dilihat di kulit (non genital warts) kerana HPV disebarkan antara kulit. Ketuat kebanyakkanya disebabkan oleh HPV jenis 6 dan 11. HPV jenis berisiko tinggi (high risk strains) boleh menyebabkan penyakit barah di cervix, dubur (anus), vulva dan faraj, zakar dan juga dalam mulut dan tekak (oropharyngeal).
Bagi penyakit barah cervix peringkat awal, simptom-simptom adalah lelehan faraj berdarah di luar masa haid, selepas menopaus atau selepas hubungan seks. Lelehan faraj yang mungkin berbau juga adalah antara simptom barah cervix.
Bagaimana seseorang boleh dijangkiti HPV?
HPV adalah virus yang boleh dijangkiti melalui sentuhan kulit, melalui hubungan seks (sama ada melalui vagina, oral, zakar atau lubang dubur) atau melalui sentuhan kawasan genital (alat kelamin). Individu tidak boleh dijangkiti HPV melalui sentuhan objek contohnya tempat duduk tandas.
Disebabkan virus ini boleh dijangkiti melalui hubungan seks, jika individu mempunyai beberapa pasangan seksual, risikonya ditingkatkan. Tambahan pula, kondom hanya memberi perlindungan yang tidak sepenuhnya. Pengisapan rokok juga boleh meningkatkan risiko jangkitan HPV sebanyak 4 kali ganda, bersama juga jika individu mengambil ubat yang melemahkan sistem imun atau mempunyai penyakit yang melemahkan sistem imun.
Apakah komplikasi penyakit jangkitan HPV?
Seperti dijelaskan di atas, HPV boleh menyebabkan penyakit barah di cervix, vulva, faraj, zakar atau lubang dubur. Ia juga boleh menyebabkan barah tekak, lidah dan tonsil.
Jenis HPV yang menyebabkan penyakit ketuat tidak sama dengan jenis HPV yang menyebabkan barah. Penyakit barah yang disebabkan oleh HPV selalunya mengambil jangka beberapa tahun untuk berlaku.
Bagaimana jangkitan HPV dan masalah kesihatan yang disebabkan olehnya boleh dicegah? Apakah rawatan penyakit jangkitan HPV?
Vaksin terhadap HPV adalah sangat digalakkan. Vaksin HPV adalah selamat dan berkesan. Keberkesanan vaksin ini adalah setinggi 97% di kalangan individu yang tidak pernah dijangkiti HPV. Vaksin juga bermanfaat jika penerima sudah dijangkiti HPV.
Jika individu menghidap barah yang disebabkan oleh HPV, rawatan yang diberikan termasuk pembedahan, kemoterapi dan radioterapi.
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/HPV-02.png34566912Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2020-07-20 16:49:282022-03-02 18:22:20Bagaimana jangkitan HPV dan masalah kesihatan yang disebabkan olehnya boleh dicegah?
This situation may be familiar to many men: while taking a shower one day, you happen to notice some white spots on your foreskin. You do a double take as you lean down to inspect your manhood. What could it be? How long have they been there? The questions are aplenty as you instinctively reach for your smartphone to begin a Google search.
There are many conditions that can cause white spots to develop on the penis and foreskin. Some men may be born with them, while others may develop them as a result of poor hygiene practices or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to know what the white spots are due to, as not all conditions require treatment. Listed below are some common causes of white spots on the foreskin and penis.
Pearly Penile Papules
Pearly penile papules (PPP) are small, dome-shaped or projection-like bumps that are located just below the head of the penis, usually arranged in a neat row. They can be white, flesh-coloured, yellow or translucent in colour. They do not cause any pain or itch. PPP is considered as a normal variant of the male penile anatomy, and are harmless bumps. It is not cancerous and there is no cancer risk. It is not a sexually transmitted infection and is not contagious. It is common and can occur in up to 38% of young men up to age 25.
PPP can be left alone and does not require treatment. However, for men who find them unsightly, they can be removed. Treatment options include laser therapy, cryotherapy and electrosurgery.
Also known as Fordyce glands, these are harmless, small white or yellow bumps that are found on the foreskin. They are basically enlarged sebaceous glands, and can occur alone or in clusters. They do not cause any pain or itch. Fordyce spots can also commonly occur on the edges of your lips or on the inside of your cheeks.
Just like PPP, Fordyce spots are not cancerous and infectious, and also does not require treatment. Similarly, they can be removed if men find them unsightly. Treatment options include topical retinoid cream, oral isotretinoin, laser therapy and electrosurgery.
Also known as preputial glands, Tyson’s glands are modified sebaceous glands that are found on the inner surface of the foreskin. They occur in pairs and are located on either side of the frenulum. These glands are also present on the hood of the clitoris in females. Tyson’s glands are normal structures and do not require treatment.
Skin tags are small, soft, flesh-coloured growths on the skin. They usually have a stalk and hang off the skin, and can vary in size from a few millimetres up to several centimetres. They tend not to grow on the penis itself, but rather, around the groin and scrotum. They often grow in areas where the skin folds and rubs against itself, and as such they are often also found on the neck, armpits, eyelids and under the breast. They affect men and women equally. Obesity, diabetes and pregnancy can increase the chances of occurrence.
Skin tags are benign tumours of the skin and do not require treatment. Occasionally, they may fall off on their own. People often wish to get them removed for aesthetic reasons, or if the skin tags are large and get in the way. Treatment options include cryosurgery, electrosurgery, ligation and excision.
Balanitis is inflammation of the foreskin and head of the penis. Spots can appear on the penile head or foreskin, and can be white or reddish. Other symptoms include redness, pain, itching, discharge, swelling and difficulty with retraction of the foreskin, and sometimes pain when passing urine.
Balanitis can affect as many as 1 in 10 males, and can occur at any age. It is more likely to occur in uncircumcised men. The most common cause of Balanitis is a bacteria or fungal infection, or a combination of both. This can result from inadequate personal hygiene and/or phimosis (tight foreskin). There are non-infectious causes for balanitis as well. Risk factors for recurrent balanitis include diabetes, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
To investigate balanitis, your doctor may perform swab tests to identify the responsible organism. Treatment involves topical and/or oral anti-fungal and antibiotics. The long term solution to balanitis is a circumcision.
Pimples develop as a result of the pores of our skin being blocked by dead skin cells, sebum and other debris. The sebaceous gland continues to produce sebum and build up under the blockage, allowing bacteria to grow in the area, resulting in inflammation, infection and pain. They can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis.
Pimples can be left alone and usually resolve on their own without treatment. It is important to resist the urge to pop the pimples as this may lead to superimposed infection, scarring and hyperpigmentation. However, they may end up self erupting and discharge small amounts of pus. Treatments for pimples include topical over-the-counter creams such as benzoyl peroxide, antibiotic creams and, if more severe, oral antibiotics.
Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles. It can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis, where it is frequently seen at the shaft or base of the penis, or the pubic area. Folliculitis tends to result from shaving, waxing or chafing of the hair follicles. The damage to the hair follicles allows bacteria to enter. Sometimes, ingrown hairs can also occur from hair removal treatments, eventually leading to folliculitis as well. Folliculitis can be painful and/or itchy. Treatment options include topical and/or oral antibiotics.
Genital warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and can be spread via vaginal, oral or anal sex. They appear as flesh-coloured growths over the genitals that can cluster and resemble a cauliflower. Most of the time they do not have any symptoms but can sometimes itch. Bleeding can also occur during sexual intercourse.
Left alone, the warts can remain the same or increase in size and number. They will disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of 1 to 2 years. Treatment options include topical medications such as imiquimod, cryotherapy and electrosurgery. Vaccines are available to help prevent HPV infection, consider getting a HPV vaccination.
Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and is a sexually transmitted infection. Itching of the penis is usually the first symptom, and can occur in other areas such as the scrotum, groin, buttocks and anus. Shortly after, tiny clusters of painful blisters develop, which can then rupture and form shallow ulcers with crusts. Other symptoms include painful urination, enlarged groin lymph nodes, fever and body aches. The virus can lie dormant in the body for years without causing any symptoms, therefore some people may not even be aware that they are infected.
Genital herpes can be diagnosed via swab testing of the lesions. When there are no symptoms, no treatment is required. Flares can be treated with oral and topical antiviral medications. There is unfortunately no cure for genital herpes, as the virus will permanently remain in the body.
This is a benign infection of the skin caused by the Molluscum Contagiosum virus, resulting in painless, small, shiny pearl-shaped lesions. They can happen anywhere on the body as a result of physical contact, but when they occur on the genital area, it is usually as a result of sexual contact. The virus is thus spread via sexual contact, or even to another part of the person’s own body, from scratching the lesions and touching another part of the body. They can appear alone, or in clusters. They usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes itch.
Left alone, the lesions will eventually disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of several months to a year. Treatment options include topical medications such as salicylic acid, cryotherapy, laser therapy and curettage.
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/Common-Causes-of-Bumps-White-Spots-on-Penis-Foreskin.png422751Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2019-11-15 10:38:002022-06-13 15:50:03Common Causes Of Bumps & White Spots On Penis & Foreskin
HPV is a virus that can infect both males and females of all ages. HPV infections may lead to diseases such as skin warts, genital warts, vaginal/vulvar cancers, cervical cancer, penile cancer and anal cancer. There are hundreds of subtypes of HPVs, with about 40 known to affect the genital area. Of these, there are high-risk types known to cause cancer and low-risk types which may cause genital warts. Vaccines against some of these high and low-risk types are available today.
Most HPV infections clear naturally, but there is no way to predict who can clear the virus on their own, or who will carry the virus and potentially spread it. The virus itself cannot be treated. However, some of the diseases it causes can be managed. For example, if a person infected with HPV presents with a wart, we can use medications to treat it or use various techniques to remove it, but the virus itself is not eradicated from the body. That is why vaccination is so important for everyone so that the virus will not take root in the body.
HPV vaccinations have been available since 2006, and the vaccination has seen high uptake in many countries as they have been introduced into their national immunization schedule. HPV vaccination, along with pap smearsand HPV testing, has been the cornerstone in reducing the burden of cervical cancer in women. In fact, we are already starting to see the benefits of this vaccine in reduced precancerous lesions of the cervix among countries with high uptake of this vaccine.
Read: Counterfeit HPV Vaccines (Gardasil 9) In Hong Kong
The vaccination in its early introduction largely left out males. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of Gardasil 9 for both males and females ages 9 to 45. The HPV vaccination is also now recommended by the U.S Center for Disease Control for men through age 21, for men who have sex with men, transgendered people, or those who have a compromised immune system (including HIV) who are ages 26 and younger. In the UK, from September this year, boys aged 12 and 13 would be offered the shots as part of a government health programme.
HPV has been linked to more than 99 per cent of cervical cancers, as well as 90 per cent of anal cancers, about 70 per cent of vaginal and vulvar cancers and more than 60 per cent of penile cancers. The protection against female cancers has already been proven. It also appears that vaccinated boys will receive some protection against anal and penile cancers as well.
There are 3 different types of HPV vaccines available in Singapore. Cervarix, which protects against 2 high-risk HPV types – 16 and 18. Gardasil 4, which protects against the high risk 16 and 18 and 2 more low-risk types 6 and 11. And Gardasil 9, the only vaccine used in the United States now which protects against 9 subtypes (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). The vaccination schedule is 3 doses; one on your first visit, one 2 months later and the last one 6 months after the first dose (0,2,6) Other dosing schedules may be suitable depending on your age.
So should you as a male get vaccinated? Speak to your doctor about it to discuss the pros and cons. As for myself as a male – I’m already vaccinated.
Hai, Saya Dr. Taufiq dari Dr. Tan dan Partners, dan hari ini saya ingin bercakap mengenai simtom penyakit kelamin atau STD, dan HIV.
Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu
Apakah simtom HIV dan STD?
Penyakit kelamin atau STD berpunca dari beberapa jenis virus, bakteria atau kuman yang boleh menjangkiti seseorang melalui hubungan seks dengan pasangan yang sudah pun mempunyai jangkitan tersebut. Penyakit HIV pula berpunca dari virus yang dikenali sebagai Human Immunodeficiency Virus, dan ia juga tersebar melalui hubungan seks.
Simtom-simtom STD boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga jenis – simtom semasa kencing, simtom pada kulit dan simtom umum. Simtom-simtom STD boleh mengambil masa yang berbeza untuk muncul – ada yang mungkin seawal 3 hari selepas hubungan seks, ada juga yang mengambil masa beberapa minggu atau bulan untuk menjadi jelas. Ada pula sesetengah orang yang dijangkiti STD, tetapi mereka tidak mengalami apa-apa simtom yang nyata.
Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP)
Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP) adalah penyakit STD yang paling kerap dijangkiti. Antara simtom 2 termasuk pengeluaran cecair dari kemaluan.
Ada juga yang dijangkiti tapi tidak menunjukkan apa2 simtom. Jangkitan ini juga boleh membawa kepada kemandulan.
Anda boleh mendapat keputusan dalam masa 24 jam. Pengesanan awal dapat membolehkan rawatan awal.
Simtom-simtom HIV pula mungkin berbeza bergantung pada individu dan peringkat penyakit.
Bagi seseorang yang mengalami jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, mereka mungkin dapat melihat simtom-simtom tertentu dalam masa 2 hingga 4 minggu pertama.
Simtom yang paling ketara pada peringkat awal ialah selsema yang serius, yang selalu disifatkan sebagai “selsema yang paling buruk yang pernah dialami”.
Keadaan ini dikenali sebagai sindrom retroviral akut, atau ARS. Sindrom jangka pendek ini disifatkan dengan sakit tekak, ruam, keletihan, sakit-sakit badan dan sakit kepala. Simtom-simtom HIV boleh berlarutan dari beberapa hari hingga ke beberapa minggu.
Selepas jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, simtom-simtom penyakit ini mungkin hilang. Tapi awas, jangkitan HIV mungkin sudah mara ke peringkat kedua yang dipanggil peringkat latensi. Pada peringkat ini, virus HIV membiak di dalam tubuh badan, tanpa menunjukkan apa-apa kesan yang jelas seperti simtom- simtom yang telah saya katakan tadi.
Peringkat terakhir jangkitan HIV dikenali sebagai penyakit AIDS. Pada peringkat ini, fungsi perlindungan dalaman atau sistem imun badan akan mula merosot.
Seseorang yang mempunyai penyakit AIDS akan lebih senang jatuh sakit, dan mungkin juga mati kerana sebab-sebab yang pada asasnya, tidak serius.
HIV Rapid Test
Untuk mengesan jangkitan HIV, ujian pantas HIV (HIV Rapid Test) hanya boleh diambil sekurang-kurangnya 14 hari selepas anda terdedah pada aktiviti berisiko tinggi.Ini adalah ujian generasi ke 4 dimana ia boleh mengesan HIV seawall 14 hari.
Ujian generasi ke 3 pula memakan masa 90 hari selepas pendedahan sebelum boleh mengesan HIV.
PrEP dan PEP
PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) adalah ubat yang diambil untuk mengelak daripada menjangktii virus HIV. PEP (Post exposure Prophylaxis) pula adalah ubat yang diambil setelah terdedah pada virus HIV.
PrEP biasanya digalakkan bagi mereka yang berisiko tinggi untuk mendapat HIV seperti golongan yang mempunyai pasangan yang berbeza, lelaki yang berhubungan sesama lelaki lain.
PEP pula di galakkan bagi golongan yang terdedah pada HIV. Contohnya kondom yang pecah sewaktu bersetubuh, berhubungan dengan pekerja seks tanpa kondom dan pendedahan pada HIV melalui suntikan jarum. (needlestick injury).
Apa itu HPV
HPV atau Human Papilloma Virus adalah sejenis virus yang merebak melalui sentuhun kulit. Ia boleh menyebabkan ketuat (warts) serta kanser pangkal rahim (cervix).
Kini ada vaksin yang bleh melindungi anda daripada 9 jenis virus HPV. Ia dinamakan Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine. Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine adalah satu-satunya vaksin yang boleh mengelak daripada kanser. Ia digalakkan bagi lelaki dan perempuan berumur 12 tahun ke atas.
Saya telah pun memberikan penerangan ringkas tentang penyakit STD, HIV dan AIDS.
Sebelum saya akhiri, saya ingin memberi beberapa pesanan.
Pertama, saya ingin menegaskan bahawa simtom-simtom seperti selsema, sakit tekak, sakit badan dan sebagainya, sama seperti simtom-simtom untuk penyakit biasa. Jadi, janganlah tergopoh-gapah untuk menganggap bahawa awak telah dijangkiti penyakit HIV hanya kerana awak ada simtom-simtom tersebut. Pada masa yang sama, saya juga ingin mengingatkan bahawa ramai orang yang dijangkiti penyakit HIV tidak menunjukkan apa-apa simtom yang jelas dan nyata.
Jika awak berasa ragu tentang kesihatan awak, adalah wajar untuk berjumpa dengan doktor yang bertauliah untuk mendapatkan pemeriksaan dan kepastian.
Kedua, mujurnya, kini kita sudah boleh merawat dan mengawal penyakit HIV dengan lebih berkesan. Sekiranya anda mendapatkan rawatan untuk jangkitan HIV, anda mempunyai peluang untuk hidup dengan sihat, dan bebas dari simtom-simtom ini untuk masa yang lama.
Ketiga, anda hanya akan dapat mengesahkan penyakit HIV dan kesihatan anda melalui ujian khas, tiada jalan lain untuk mendapatkan kepastian ini.
Sekiranya anda bimbang tentang kemungkinan pendedahan, atau anda mengalami simtom-simtom STD dan HIV, sila lawati klinik kami untuk penilaian dan ujian yang betul. Kami sedia membantu untuk memberi nasihat dan rawatan yang diperlukan. Bicaralah dengan dokter Anda hari ini!
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/How-Long-Can-HIV-Survive-Outside-the-Body-scaled.jpg17062560Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2019-07-18 14:07:002022-06-13 16:11:00Apakah Simtom HIV Dan STD?
Most men tend to not pay regular attention to their general skin condition, but when it comes to matters of the penis, it is almost always a cause for immediate concern; after all, it is the source of our manhood. More often than not, any unusual appearance such as discolouration, dry skin, red spots or bumps may result in considerable anxiety.
It is not uncommon for men, especially those with darker skin, to have slight variations in the colour of the penis. In fact, for men of all races, it is normal for the penis to be slightly darker than the skin on the rest of the body. This applies also to the labia of women.
When an adolescent male or female undergoes puberty, the body produces the sex hormones, testosterone and oestrogen, which results in the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Excess levels of these hormones in the genitals respond to melanocytes, the skin cells that cause pigmentation. These physiological changes are responsible for darker genitalia in both men and women.
Mild penile discolouration is generally nothing to worry about. In fact, during sexual arousal, the penis can take on a reddish, sometimes almost purplish colour, due to increased blood flow to the organ. However, there are other causes of penile discolouration that may be more severe and require treatment.
6 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration
1. Contact Dermatitis
Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction to contact with an irritant. This can happen anywhere on the body, including the penis. When this happens, it is usually caused by latex condom usage. The skin of the penis can turn red and itchy. Sometimes the skin can break causing serous discharge, and bacterial infection can occur. Mild cases can be treated with a corticosteroid cream. Non-latex condoms can be used if you have a latex allergy.
2. Penile Injury
A penile injury can lead to rapid discolouration due to bruising, in the form of purple, dark brown or even greenish hues. Sometimes, a red patch with prominent blood vessels just under the surface of the skin can occur due to a hematoma. This usually fades after several days and treatment is typically not necessary.
However, if there is severe pain along with the discolouration after a traumatic episode, immediate medical attention is required as this could be due to a penile fracture, which is a more severe issue.
3. Lichen Sclerosus
Lichen sclerosus is a lifelong condition that can go through periods of remission and flare-ups, and is characterised by white patches on the penis. It is more common in those who are uncircumcised. In addition to blotchy white spots, the skin of the penis can also become itchy, fragile and tear or bleed easily. Other symptoms include painful sex and an inability to retract the foreskin fully.
The cause of lichen sclerosus is unknown, but an overactive immune system or an imbalance of hormones may play a role. It is not contagious and cannot be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Treatment usually includes a strong steroid ointment applied directly to the affected skin. If only the foreskin is affected, circumcision may be advised.
4. Penile Melanosis or Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)
Penile melanosis, or PIH, is a benign condition simply caused by overproduction of melanin, in which the skin can appear in a wide variety of colors including different shades of brown, grey or even blue.
Overproduction usually occurs after an injury to the skin of the penis, the most common being excessive rubbing of the penis from vigorous sex or self-pleasuring. It will fade over time, or if a man is bothered by it, possible treatments such as topical retinol (vitamin A) every night before bed, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion can help to reduce the discolouration.
5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
Purple sores on the penis can occur as a result of genital herpesor syphilis. These STDs can be accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, fever, itchiness, burning, and fatigue. If STD is suspected, it is imperative to head to a clinic to see a physician as soon as possible to be tested and get treated.
Penile cancer tends to start on the skin of the penis and spreads towards the deeper tissues. 95% are squamous cell carcinomas, while penile melanoma accounts for 0.7%. Penile cancer is rare and the cause is not entirely known, but risk factors include smoking, HIV and high risk strains of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include changes in the colour and thickness of the skin of the penis, foul smelling discharge under the foreskin, and abnormal non-resolving growths or ulceration of the penis. A diagnosis of penile cancer requires an urgent biopsy.
There are other conditions that can cause penile discolouration. It is important to determine the exact cause as treatment varies according to the cause. It is always best to visit a doctor for a physical examination and proper evaluation.
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/teaser-banane-mit-schale-gettyimages-758486145.jpg10801920Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2019-06-28 05:14:252022-06-13 15:50:226 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration
Lumps and bumps over the external genitalia (the vulva) or vagina are a fairly common concern that ladies may have. These can be normal or benign, or due to infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and less commonly, due to cancers (malignancy).
Here are some of the Causes of Vaginal Lumps & Bumps:
1) Benign bumps
Causes of benign bumps in the genital region include vestibular papillomatosis, Fordyce spots, ingrown hairs and folliculitis, various cysts (sebaceous cysts, Bartholin cysts).
This is a variation of normal anatomy. Vestibular papillomatosis appears as multiple, symmetrical, tiny bumps or finger-like projections over the labia minora and vestibule (vaginal opening). This can often be mistaken for warts and may thus be an undue cause for worry but there are features which help differentiate it from warts. No treatment is required for vestibular papillomatosis. It is harmless and it is NOT due to infection and cannot be spread to your sexual partners.
These are due to enlarged oil glands, which appear as tiny (1-3mm) whitish or yellowish bumps over the labia minora. These can also occur in other parts of the body, for instance around the edges of the lips or on the penis in men. They are completely harmless and painless and are part of normal anatomy. There is no need for any treatment or worry.
Folliculitis and ingrown hairs
Ingrown hairs may manifest as bumps, particularly in someone who shaves. Both ingrown hairs, as well as hair follicles, can get infected (known as folliculitis), resulting in small, red, tender bumps. Usually, topical creams will suffice for treatment. Good hygiene, particularly relating to hair removal, is helpful in reducing the risk of folliculitis.
Cysts are small round bumps that can be felt underneath the skin. These may arise from structures in the skin layer itself e.g. sebaceous cysts, or from glands which are found in the genital region near the labia minora (Bartholin’s glands).
Sebaceous cysts are the result of oil glands which get blocked. They are painless unless they become infected. Most of the time, they can be left alone—but in the event of infection or if they become too large, incision and drainage or removal may be necessary.
Bartholin cysts are the result of Bartholin’s glands which are blocked. These cysts can enlarge, become infected and tender. They also have a tendency to recur and a minor surgery to remove them may be required.
2) Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)
These are caused by certain strains (type 6, 11) of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). They appear as small skin-coloured bumps or irregular, cauliflower-like skin growths. They and can occur in isolation but are usually multiple. Genital warts usually appear anytime between weeks to 8 months (average 3 months) from the time of HPV infection and are highly infectious. The clinical course of warts can vary – in some individuals, genital warts may spontaneously resolve, while in others they may stay the same or increase in size and number.
The treatment of genital warts does not remove the underlying HPV infection and the only medication available against this is the HPV vaccine. The HPV vaccine protects against future infection but does not get rid of existing strains, so it is best to get vaccinated as soon as possible before one is exposed to more strains of HPV. Read: Cervical Cancer, PAP SMEAR & HPV Vaccination – What you need to know
This is skin infection caused by the Molluscum contagiosum virus which causes multiple small, pearly white or skin coloured bumps, sometimes with a central dimple (“central umbilication”). These are painless, non-itchy and can occur not just in the genital region but elsewhere on the body as well. The virus is spread through direct skin contact, or through contaminated clothing and towels. These lesions are harmless and will generally resolve within 6 months to a year (occasionally longer). Treatments available to address these bumps include topical medications like imiquimoid cream, freezing, and electrosurgery (laser).
One of the stages of genital herpes is painful genital blisters – red bumps which eventually become fluid filled and later burst to form ulcers. Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Viruswhich can be transmitted through secretions such as saliva or genital fluids. There is no cure for herpes, but antiviral medications are prescribed when an individual has a painful flare of blisters and ulcers.
Vulval or vaginal cancer are rare but serious causes of a vaginal lump or bump. These may be accompanied by other features such as persistent itching, pain, a persistent ulcer, and abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.
Vaginal melanoma (a type of cancer of the skin) can appear as a pigmented lump which may be associated with itching, bleeding and pain.
Malignancies tend to occur in older women but as their symptoms can be rather nonspecific, it is best to get any abnormal lump/bump checked.
One of the first occurrences where people note this is new bleeding from the rectum, especially after wiping with toilet paper. Of course, there are many other causes of rectal bleeding, the most common being piles and the most deadly being some form of rectal cancer.
The other way people notice this is when their partner sees it and tells them about it. One would be able to feel the growth with your fingers and also see them with a mirror.
These perianal warts are painless and itchless.
How Can I Catch Perianal Warts?
These cauliflower-like perianal warts are caused by the virus HPV. This is spread through unprotected anal intercourse with a partner who has HPV.
Most often, HPV is symptomless and you can catch HPV from your partner even if he seems completely well.
If I Have Perianal Warts Can I Pass It To My Partner?
Yes the virus which causes perianal warts – HPV, can be passed on to your partner during unprotected anal intercourse.
In the situation, you do not have noticeable perianal warts but your partner develops penile warts after anal intercourse with you, you should also have yourself check for perianal warts and HPV.
Also, you can learn more aboutsymptoms of other STD one can contract from Anal sex
How Do I Check For Perianal Warts?
During a physical examination, what you will tend to notice is “cauliflower-like” growths around the anus. These are usually flesh coloured or a slightly lighter or darker shade.
Other growths that may appear around the anus would be skin tags which can mimic perianal warts to the untrained eye, or even on rare occasions, ulcers which may be red flags of non-benign growths.
The best advice we can offer is to see our doctors to determine whether you truly have Perianal Warts or another condition. We may then take a sample of the growth and send it to the laboratory for confirmation.
All our clinics in Singapore provide Rapid HPV Testing (Next Day Results)
You can learn more about
How is Perianal Warts Treated?
We have covered in this article “How to Get Rid of Genital Warts” some of the commonly used treatments for Perianal warts. We will summarize them here again for your perusal.
The 3 main modalities we use are Creams and lotions, Freezing the wart or “Laser” electrocautery of the wart.
1. Creams and Lotions
Aldara Cream (Imiquimod) is effective for Perianal Warts. The cream is applied 3-4x a week nightly and left for 8 hours overnight. This warts treatment process is repeated for about 6 weeks to get full eradication of the wart. If too much of the cream is applied, some may experience redness and burning of the area as well.
Of course, there is also a small percentage who do not see full resolution and may need other treatments. If too much cream is applied it can cause redness and even blistering of the surrounding skin.
With a special device that controls the release of liquid nitrogen, we can also freeze the wart. Most people see a resolution after 2-3 freezing treatments over a month. This process is usually painless and no anaesthesia is needed prior.
3. “Laser” Electrocautery
This is usually done in 1 sitting and is enough to eradicate the wart. However, this process often stings and would require some form of anaesthetic to numb the pain prior.
How Can I Protect Myself From Perianal Warts?
One of the best ways to protect yourself is to use a condom if you are intending to have anal sex. This however only confers a rough 30% protection against HPV infection.
There are more than 100 strains of HPV viruses out there, 4 of them are the main high-risk ones causing cervical cancer, anal cancer, throat cancer and penile cancer.
There are new vaccinations available which protect you against these 4 high-risk strains and 5 other low-risk strains which are wart causing. You can read more about Gardasil 9 (HPV vaccination).
Recently the FDA (food drug administration of the USA) announcedthatGardasil 9should be expanded to include Men and Women from 27-45 years of age, thereby providing greater protection against HPV and the risks of those above-mentioned cancers or warts.
You can speak to our doctors to find out more about this HPV vaccination.
Are There Any Other Diseases Associated with Perianal Warts?
Yes as described above there are risks of getting anal cancer, throat cancer, cervical cancer (women) and penile cancer from HPV.
Are There Other STDs Associated with Perianal Warts?
Anal sex, not only consists of penile insertion into the anus (bottom) but also allowing your partner to use his mouth on the anus (analingus) or insertion of fingers and sex toys into the anus.
It is highly recommended to use condoms and lube during anal sex to reduce the risk of contracting a sexually transmitted disease (STD).
What is the STD that you can potentially get from anal sex for Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men (MSM)?
1. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea
The reason why we clumped them together in this article is that chlamydia gonorrhoea can present with similar symptoms and may present together in certain patients. These bacteria’s can present in a few ways:
Discharge is a term used when liquid is seen coming out of the anus. This is usually very minimal and patients usually notice a small number of stains on their underwear. In very rare situations, the volume may be high and appear yellow in colour. see more of Rectal Gonorrhea
Patients usually present with mild discomfort in the anal region and some of them describe it as a feeling of constant urge to poo. It is never painful, and if patients present with severe pain, it is usually due to haemorrhoids or a tear at the opening of the anus.
This is very rare. If patients present with bleeding, it is usually due to piles or a tear at the opening of the anus.
Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms
The insertive partner (or top) may present with a burning sensation when passing urine, urethral discharge, an increase in urinary frequency, waking up in the middle of the night to pass urine and the feeling of incomplete bladder emptying. However, keep in mind a large proportion of men may not show these symptoms.
It is best to get tested via anal swab or urine test for these bacteria if you have had an exposure as it can be easily treated with antibiotics. Prostate infection and inflammation can be due to non-Sexually Transmitted infections & Sexually Transmitted Infections.
We provide Rapid Chlamydia & Gonorrhea PCR Screening (Next Day Results).
2. Human papillomavirus (HPV)
HPV is, in fact, one of the most common STD’s out there but is less well known. It is usually transmitted through skin to skin contact, through contact with infected mucous membranes or bodily fluids. In other words, condoms will not protect you from this virus. There are many different strains and can cause anal cancer and cauliflower-like growths in the anus and surrounding skin. It is recommended to see a doctor screen for anal warts, or other genital warts because some warts may be inside the anus and may not be visualised externally.
Warts can be treated and you should see a men’s health doctor if you have any suspicious lumps. It is highly recommended for men who engage in anal sex to get the HPV vaccine. Rapid HPV Testing (Next Day Results) is available in our clinics. Check out:How to Get Rid of Warts
There are 2 kinds of herpes virus, HSV type 1 and HSV type 2. These viruses can be easily passed through skin to skin contact, which means condoms have a very limited to a negligible role in reducing the transmission. They usually present in the area of contact with multiple, small and painful ulcers or blisters within a week or sometime months after exposure. If there is any suspicion, the doctor will perform a dry swab to diagnose the lesion. Unfortunately, there is no cure but there is treatment available for flares.
4. Molluscum Contagiosum
Molluscum Contagiosum is caused by a virus call Poxvirus and presented with lesions that may appear anywhere on the body. The lesions are small, raised and usually white or flesh-coloured with a dimple or pit in the centre. The size can range from 2 to 5 mm in diameter and may be itchy or sore. This virus can be passed through skin to skin contact or thru contaminated materials such as clothing, towels, pool equipment or even toys. The good news is that these lesions usually do not cause long-term medical problems and can be easily treated. Water Wart Removal is available in our clinics.
Syphilis an STD which is transmitted thru any form of sexual contact. It is caused by a bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. This disease can present in many ways, from a single, big and painless ulcer in the area of sexual contact, to rashes around the body and palms. In certain cases, they can cause an infection in the brain and spinal cord. This symptom can present any time between 9 to 90 days after being infected. The good thing is this disease is usually curable with antibiotics.
The riskiest sexual behaviour for getting and transmitting HIV in men is anal sex. The receptive anal sex is much riskier as the bottom partner’s risk is 13 folds higher than the insertive partner. This virus can pass through blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid (Pre-cum) or rectal fluids.
This risk is higher when recreational drugs are used.
Condoms and HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), if used consistently can reduce the risk of getting HIV significantly. The condom reduces the risk of getting HIV by 63% for the insertive partner and 72% for the receptive partner if they engaged in anal sex with an HIV infected partner.
Yes. it is not 100%!!. PrEP can reduce the risk of getting HIV by more than 90%. If you think you have been potentially exposed to the virus and did not use a condom, you can see a doctor within 72 hours of the exposure to start the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment.
Also, a regular HIV Test is recommended if you are sexually active with unknown HIV status partners.
If you think you have had an exposure to HIV or any form of STD thru risky sexual activity, it is recommended you get tested and seek treatment early to reduce any untoward complications and risk of passing it to your partner. Take Care!
https://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/01/STD-CN.jpg14401920Miri Yeohttps://www.dtapclinic.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/DTAP_FINAL-Logo_Tagline-1ab-1.pngMiri Yeo2019-01-07 11:43:322022-06-13 15:52:14STD Risk from Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
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