Bagaimana jangkitan HPV dan masalah kesihatan yang disebabkan olehnya boleh dicegah?

Apakah itu human papillomavirus (HPV)?

HPV adalah virus yang boleh menyebabkan penyakit kelamin (sexually transmitted disease, STD) dan adalah penyakit STD yang paling kerap berlaku di dunia. Jangkitan HPV dianggarkan berlaku di kalangan sekurang-kurangnya 80 peratus wanita dan lelaki yang telah bermula hubungan seks.  

Apakah gejala atau simptom jangkitan HPV?

Kebanyakan orang yang dijangkiti HPV tidak mempunyai apa-apa gejala kerana sistem ketahanan (imun) badan dapat menyingkirkan virus HPV sebelum apa-apa gejala berlaku.

Walaubagaimanapun, bagi individu yang mempunyai simptom, ketuat (genital warts) boleh dilihat di kawasan alat kelamin. Ketuat juga boleh dilihat di kulit (non genital warts) kerana HPV disebarkan antara kulit. Ketuat kebanyakkanya disebabkan oleh HPV jenis 6 dan 11. HPV jenis berisiko tinggi (high risk strains) boleh menyebabkan penyakit barah di cervix, dubur (anus), vulva dan faraj, zakar dan juga dalam mulut dan tekak (oropharyngeal).  

Bagi penyakit barah cervix peringkat awal, simptom-simptom adalah lelehan faraj berdarah di luar masa haid, selepas menopaus atau selepas hubungan seks. Lelehan faraj yang mungkin berbau juga adalah antara simptom barah cervix.

Bagaimana seseorang boleh dijangkiti HPV?

HPV adalah virus yang boleh dijangkiti melalui sentuhan kulit, melalui hubungan seks (sama ada melalui vagina, oral, zakar atau lubang dubur) atau melalui sentuhan kawasan genital (alat kelamin). Individu tidak boleh dijangkiti HPV melalui sentuhan objek contohnya tempat duduk tandas. 

Disebabkan virus ini boleh dijangkiti melalui hubungan seks, jika individu mempunyai beberapa pasangan seksual, risikonya ditingkatkan. Tambahan pula, kondom hanya memberi perlindungan yang tidak sepenuhnya. Pengisapan rokok juga boleh meningkatkan risiko jangkitan HPV sebanyak 4 kali ganda, bersama juga jika individu mengambil ubat yang melemahkan sistem imun atau mempunyai penyakit yang melemahkan sistem imun. 

Apakah komplikasi penyakit jangkitan HPV?

Seperti dijelaskan di atas, HPV boleh menyebabkan penyakit barah di cervix, vulva, faraj, zakar atau lubang dubur. Ia juga boleh menyebabkan barah tekak, lidah dan tonsil. 

Jenis HPV yang menyebabkan penyakit ketuat tidak sama dengan jenis HPV yang menyebabkan barah. Penyakit barah yang disebabkan oleh HPV selalunya mengambil jangka beberapa tahun untuk berlaku.

Bagaimana jangkitan HPV dan masalah kesihatan yang disebabkan olehnya boleh dicegah? Apakah rawatan penyakit jangkitan HPV?

Vaksin terhadap HPV adalah sangat digalakkan. Vaksin HPV adalah selamat dan berkesan. Keberkesanan vaksin ini adalah setinggi 97% di kalangan individu yang tidak pernah dijangkiti HPV. Vaksin juga bermanfaat jika penerima sudah dijangkiti HPV. 

Jika individu menghidap barah yang disebabkan oleh HPV, rawatan yang diberikan termasuk pembedahan, kemoterapi dan radioterapi.

STDs: Apakah Simtom HIV Dan STD?


Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu


Dr. Taufiq at DTAP Clinic @ Somerset

1 Grange Rd,
#10-08 Orchard Building,
Singapore 239693

Telepon: +65 6262 0762

Dr. Ezlyn at DTAP Clinic @ DUO Galleria

7 Fraser St,
#B3-18 DUO Galleria (Bugis MRT), 
Singapore 189356

Telepon: +65 6976 5023

Common Causes Of Bumps & White Spots On Penis & Foreskin

This situation may be familiar to many men: while taking a shower one day, you happen to notice some white spots on your foreskin. You do a double take as you lean down to inspect your manhood. What could it be? How long have they been there? The questions are aplenty as you instinctively reach for your smartphone to begin a Google search.

There are many conditions that can cause white spots to develop on the penis and foreskin. Some men may be born with them, while others may develop them as a result of poor hygiene practices or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to know what the white spots are due to, as not all conditions require treatment. Listed below are some common causes of white spots on the foreskin and penis.


Pearly Penile Papules

Pearly penile papules (PPP) are small, dome-shaped or projection-like bumps that are located just below the head of the penis, usually arranged in a neat row. They can be white, flesh-coloured, yellow or translucent in colour. They do not cause any pain or itch. PPP is considered as a normal variant of the male penile anatomy, and are harmless bumps. It is not cancerous and there is no cancer risk. It is not a sexually transmitted infection and is not contagious. It is common and can occur in up to 38% of young men up to age 25.

PPP can be left alone and does not require treatment. However, for men who find them unsightly, they can be removed. Treatment options include laser therapy, cryotherapy and electrosurgery. 

READ: What are Pearly Penile Papules?


Fordyce Spots

Also known as Fordyce glands, these are harmless, small white or yellow bumps that are found on the foreskin. They are basically enlarged sebaceous glands, and can occur alone or in clusters. They do not cause any pain or itch. Fordyce spots can also commonly occur on the edges of your lips or on the inside of your cheeks.

Just like PPP, Fordyce spots are not cancerous and infectious, and also does not require treatment. Similarly, they can be removed if men find them unsightly. Treatment options include topical retinoid cream, oral isotretinoin, laser therapy and electrosurgery. 


Tyson’s Glands

Also known as preputial glands, Tyson’s glands are modified sebaceous glands that are found on the inner surface of the foreskin. They occur in pairs and are located on either side of the frenulum. These glands are also present on the hood of the clitoris in females. Tyson’s glands are normal structures and do not require treatment.  


Skin Tags

Skin tags are small, soft, flesh-coloured growths on the skin. They usually have a stalk and hang off the skin, and can vary in size from a few millimetres up to several centimetres. They tend not to grow on the penis itself, but rather, around the groin and scrotum. They often grow in areas where the skin folds and rubs against itself, and as such they are often also found on the neck, armpits, eyelids and under the breast. They affect men and women equally. Obesity, diabetes and pregnancy can increase the chances of occurrence.

Skin tags are benign tumours of the skin and do not require treatment. Occasionally, they may fall off on their own. People often wish to get them removed for aesthetic reasons, or if the skin tags are large and get in the way. Treatment options include cryosurgery, electrosurgery, ligation and excision.  

READ: Skin


Balanitis

Balanitis is inflammation of the foreskin and head of the penis. Spots can appear on the penile head or foreskin, and can be white or reddish. Other symptoms include redness, pain, itching, discharge, swelling and difficulty with retraction of the foreskin, and sometimes pain when passing urine. 

Balanitis can affect as many as 1 in 10 males, and can occur at any age. It is more likely to occur in uncircumcised men. The most common cause of Balanitis is a bacteria or fungal infection, or a combination of both. This can result from inadequate personal hygiene and/or phimosis (tight foreskin). There are non-infectious causes for balanitis as well. Risk factors for recurrent balanitis include diabetes, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. 

To investigate balanitis, your doctor may perform swab tests to identify the responsible organism. Treatment involves topical and/or oral anti-fungal and antibiotics. The long term solution to balanitis is a circumcision.

READ: Causes, symptoms and treatment of Balanitis.

Pimples

Pimples develop as a result of the pores of our skin being blocked by dead skin cells, sebum and other debris. The sebaceous gland continues to produce sebum and build up under the blockage, allowing bacteria to grow in the area, resulting in inflammation, infection and pain. They can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis.

Pimples can be left alone and usually resolve on their own without treatment. It is important to resist the urge to pop the pimples as this may lead to superimposed infection, scarring and hyperpigmentation. However, they may end up self erupting and discharge small amounts of pus. Treatments for pimples include topical over-the-counter creams such as benzoyl peroxide, antibiotic creams and, if more severe, oral antibiotics.

READ: Skin


Folliculitis

Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles. It can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis, where it is frequently seen at the shaft or base of the penis, or the pubic area. Folliculitis tends to result from shaving, waxing or chafing of the hair follicles. The damage to the hair follicles allows bacteria to enter. Sometimes, ingrown hairs can also occur from hair removal treatments, eventually leading to folliculitis as well. Folliculitis can be painful and/or itchy. Treatment options include topical and/or oral antibiotics. 

READ: Common causes of penile itching and pubic itching


Genital Warts

Genital warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and can be spread via vaginal, oral or anal sex. They appear as flesh-coloured growths over the genitals that can cluster and resemble a cauliflower. Most of the time they do not have any symptoms but can sometimes itch. Bleeding can also occur during sexual intercourse. 

READ: Causes, symptoms and treatment for Genital Warts
READ: How to get rid of Genital Warts

Left alone, the warts can remain the same or increase in size and number. They will disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of 1 to 2 years. Treatment options include topical medications such as imiquimod, cryotherapy and electrosurgery. Vaccines are available to help prevent HPV infection, consider getting a HPV vaccination. 

READ: HPV Vaccination For Men
READ: Rapid HPV Testing

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and is a sexually transmitted infection. Itching of the penis is usually the first symptom, and can occur in other areas such as the scrotum, groin, buttocks and anus. Shortly after, tiny clusters of painful blisters develop, which can then rupture and form shallow ulcers with crusts. Other symptoms include painful urination, enlarged groin lymph nodes, fever and body aches. The virus can lie dormant in the body for years without causing any symptoms, therefore some people may not even be aware that they are infected. 

Genital herpes can be diagnosed via swab testing of the lesions. When there are no symptoms, no treatment is required. Flares can be treated with oral and topical antiviral medications. There is unfortunately no cure for genital herpes, as the virus will permanently remain in the body.

READ: Rapid Herpes Testing

Molluscum Contagiosum

This is a benign infection of the skin caused by the Molluscum Contagiosum virus, resulting in painless, small, shiny pearl-shaped lesions. They can happen anywhere on the body as a result of physical contact, but when they occur on the genital area, it is usually as a result of sexual contact. The virus is thus spread via sexual contact, or even to another part of the person’s own body, from scratching the lesions and touching another part of the body. They can appear alone, or in clusters. They usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes itch. 

Left alone, the lesions will eventually disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of several months to a year. Treatment options include topical medications such as salicylic acid, cryotherapy, laser therapy and curettage.

READ: Everything you need to know about Molluscum Contagiosum

In conclusion, do not panic if you notice white spots on your penis, as not all white spots require treatment.  Speak to your doctor for advice on white spots or bumps and request for an examination. 

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Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?

HPV is a virus that can infect both males and females of all ages. HPV infections may lead to diseases such as skin warts, genital warts, vaginal/vulvar cancers, cervical cancer, penile cancer and anal cancer. There are hundreds of subtypes of HPVs, with about 40 known to affect the genital area. Of these, there are high-risk types known to cause cancer and low-risk types which may cause genital warts. Vaccines against some of these high and low-risk types are available today.

 

Most HPV infections clear naturally, but there is no way to predict who can clear the virus on their own, or who will carry the virus and potentially spread it. The virus itself cannot be treated. However, some of the diseases it causes can be managed. For example, if a person infected with HPV presents with a wart, we can use medications to treat it or use various techniques to remove it, but the virus itself is not eradicated from the body. That is why vaccination is so important for everyone so that the virus will not take root in the body.

 

HPV vaccinations have been available since 2006, and the vaccination has seen high uptake in many countries as they have been introduced into their national immunization schedule. HPV vaccination, along with pap smears and HPV testing, has been the cornerstone in reducing the burden of cervical cancer in women. In fact, we are already starting to see the benefits of this vaccine in reduced precancerous lesions of the cervix among countries with high uptake of this vaccine.

Read: Counterfeit HPV Vaccines (Gardasil 9) In Hong Kong

The vaccination in its early introduction largely left out males. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved the use of Gardasil 9 for both males and females ages 9 to 45. The HPV vaccination is also now recommended by the U.S Center for Disease Control for men through age 21, for men who have sex with men, transgendered people, or those who have a compromised immune system (including HIV) who are ages 26 and younger. In the UK, from September this year, boys aged 12 and 13 would be offered the shots as part of a government health programme.

Read: HPV Vaccination for Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men

HPV has been linked to more than 99 per cent of cervical cancers, as well as 90 per cent of anal cancers, about 70 per cent of vaginal and vulvar cancers and more than 60 per cent of penile cancers. The protection against female cancers has already been proven. It also appears that vaccinated boys will receive some protection against anal and penile cancers as well.

 READ: Perianal Warts (Peri-Anal Warts) & Anal Warts Removal

 

There are 3 different types of HPV vaccines available in Singapore. Cervarix, which protects against 2 high-risk HPV types – 16 and 18. Gardasil 4, which protects against the high risk 16 and 18 and 2 more low-risk types 6 and 11. And Gardasil 9, the only vaccine used in the United States now which protects against 9 subtypes (6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58). The vaccination schedule is 3 doses; one on your first visit, one 2 months later and the last one 6 months after the first dose (0,2,6) Other dosing schedules may be suitable depending on your age.

So should you as a male get vaccinated? Speak to your doctor about it to discuss the pros and cons. As for myself as a male – I’m already vaccinated.

HPV Vaccination is available in all our clinics in Singapore & Malaysia


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  3. 11 Causes of Penile Itching & Pubic Itch
  4. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  5. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  6. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  7. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  8. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  9. Everything You Need to Know About Herpes Simplex Virus
  10. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  11. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  12. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  13. Sex During Period (Sex & Menstruation) What To Know
  14. 10 Common HIV Related to Opportunistic Infections

Apakah Simtom HIV Dan STD?

Hai, Saya Dr. Taufiq dari Dr. Tan dan Partners, dan hari ini saya ingin bercakap mengenai simtom penyakit kelamin atau STD, dan HIV.

Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu


Apakah simtom HIV dan STD?

Penyakit kelamin atau STD berpunca dari beberapa jenis virus, bakteria atau kuman yang boleh menjangkiti seseorang melalui hubungan seks dengan pasangan yang sudah pun mempunyai jangkitan tersebut. Penyakit HIV pula berpunca dari virus yang dikenali sebagai Human Immunodeficiency Virus, dan ia juga tersebar melalui hubungan seks.


Simtom-simtom STD

Simtom-simtom STD boleh dibahagikan kepada tiga jenis – simtom semasa kencing, simtom pada kulit dan simtom umum. Simtom-simtom STD boleh mengambil masa yang berbeza untuk muncul – ada yang mungkin seawal 3 hari selepas hubungan seks, ada juga yang mengambil masa beberapa minggu atau bulan untuk menjadi jelas. Ada pula sesetengah orang yang dijangkiti STD, tetapi mereka tidak mengalami apa-apa simtom yang nyata.


Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP)

Jangkitan Chlamydia dan gonorrhea (CGP) adalah penyakit STD yang paling kerap dijangkiti. Antara simtom 2 termasuk pengeluaran cecair dari kemaluan.

Ada juga yang dijangkiti tapi tidak menunjukkan apa2 simtom. Jangkitan ini juga boleh membawa kepada kemandulan.
Di klinik kami di somerset, ada meneyediakan khidmat pemeriksaan CGP pantas.

Anda boleh mendapat keputusan dalam masa 24 jam. Pengesanan awal dapat membolehkan rawatan awal.

Simtom-simtom HIV pula mungkin berbeza bergantung pada individu dan peringkat penyakit.


Simtom-simtom HIV

Bagi seseorang yang mengalami jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, mereka mungkin dapat melihat simtom-simtom tertentu dalam masa 2 hingga 4 minggu pertama.

Simtom yang paling ketara pada peringkat awal ialah selsema yang serius, yang selalu disifatkan sebagai “selsema yang paling buruk yang pernah dialami”.

Keadaan ini dikenali sebagai sindrom retroviral akut, atau ARS. Sindrom jangka pendek ini disifatkan dengan sakit tekak, ruam, keletihan, sakit-sakit badan dan sakit kepala. Simtom-simtom HIV boleh berlarutan dari beberapa hari hingga ke
beberapa minggu.

Selepas jangkitan HIV peringkat awal, simtom-simtom penyakit ini mungkin hilang. Tapi awas, jangkitan HIV mungkin sudah mara ke peringkat kedua yang dipanggil peringkat latensi. Pada peringkat ini, virus HIV membiak di dalam tubuh badan, tanpa menunjukkan apa-apa kesan yang jelas seperti simtom- simtom yang telah saya katakan tadi.

Peringkat terakhir jangkitan HIV dikenali sebagai penyakit AIDS. Pada peringkat ini, fungsi perlindungan dalaman atau sistem imun badan akan mula merosot.

Seseorang yang mempunyai penyakit AIDS akan lebih senang jatuh sakit, dan mungkin juga mati kerana sebab-sebab yang pada asasnya, tidak serius.


HIV Rapid Test

Untuk mengesan jangkitan HIV, ujian pantas HIV (HIV Rapid Test) hanya boleh diambil sekurang-kurangnya 14 hari selepas anda terdedah pada aktiviti berisiko tinggi.Ini adalah ujian generasi ke 4 dimana ia boleh mengesan HIV
seawall 14 hari.

Ujian generasi ke 3 pula memakan masa 90 hari selepas pendedahan sebelum boleh mengesan HIV.


PrEP dan PEP

PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis) adalah ubat yang diambil untuk mengelak daripada menjangktii virus HIV. PEP (Post exposure Prophylaxis) pula adalah ubat yang diambil setelah terdedah pada virus HIV.

PrEP biasanya digalakkan bagi mereka yang berisiko tinggi untuk mendapat HIV seperti golongan yang mempunyai pasangan yang berbeza, lelaki yang berhubungan sesama lelaki lain.

PEP pula di galakkan bagi golongan yang terdedah pada HIV. Contohnya kondom yang pecah sewaktu bersetubuh, berhubungan dengan pekerja seks tanpa kondom dan pendedahan pada HIV melalui suntikan jarum. (needlestick injury).

Klinik kami di daerah Orchard Road di Somerset ada menyediakan kedua- dua jenis ujian HIV serta perkhidmatan PrEP dan PEP.


Apa itu HPV

HPV atau Human Papilloma Virus adalah sejenis virus yang merebak melalui sentuhun kulit. Ia boleh menyebabkan ketuat (warts) serta kanser pangkal rahim (cervix).

Kini ada vaksin yang bleh melindungi anda daripada 9 jenis virus HPV. Ia dinamakan Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine. Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine adalah satu-satunya vaksin yang boleh mengelak daripada kanser. Ia digalakkan bagi lelaki dan perempuan berumur 12 tahun ke atas.

Kami ada menyediakan khidmat vaksin Human Papillomavirus 9-valent Vaccine di klinik kami di daerah Orchard Road di Somerset.

Saya telah pun memberikan penerangan ringkas tentang penyakit STD, HIV dan AIDS.

Sebelum saya akhiri, saya ingin memberi beberapa pesanan.


Kesimpulannya

  • Pertama, saya ingin menegaskan bahawa simtom-simtom seperti selsema, sakit tekak, sakit badan dan sebagainya, sama seperti simtom-simtom untuk penyakit biasa. Jadi, janganlah tergopoh-gapah untuk menganggap bahawa awak telah dijangkiti penyakit HIV hanya kerana awak ada simtom-simtom tersebut. Pada masa yang sama, saya juga ingin mengingatkan bahawa ramai orang yang dijangkiti penyakit HIV tidak menunjukkan apa-apa simtom yang jelas dan nyata.

Jika awak berasa ragu tentang kesihatan awak, adalah wajar untuk berjumpa dengan doktor yang bertauliah untuk mendapatkan pemeriksaan dan kepastian.

  • Kedua, mujurnya, kini kita sudah boleh merawat dan mengawal penyakit HIV dengan lebih berkesan. Sekiranya anda mendapatkan rawatan untuk jangkitan HIV, anda mempunyai peluang untuk hidup dengan sihat, dan bebas dari simtom-simtom ini untuk masa yang lama.
  • Ketiga, anda hanya akan dapat mengesahkan penyakit HIV dan kesihatan anda melalui ujian khas, tiada jalan lain untuk mendapatkan kepastian ini.

Sekiranya anda bimbang tentang kemungkinan pendedahan, atau anda mengalami simtom-simtom STD dan HIV, sila lawati klinik kami untuk penilaian dan ujian yang betul. Kami sedia membantu untuk memberi nasihat dan rawatan yang diperlukan. Bicaralah dengan dokter Anda hari ini!


Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu


Dr. Taufiq at DTAP Clinic @ Somerset

1 Grange Rd,
#10-08 Orchard Building,
Singapore 239693

Telepon: +65 6262 0762

Dr. Ezlyn at DTAP Clinic @ DUO Galleria

7 Fraser St,
#B3-18 DUO Galleria (Bugis MRT), 
Singapore 189356

Telepon: +65 6976 5023

Tag: hiv test

6 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration

Most men tend to not pay regular attention to their general skin condition, but when it comes to matters of the penis, it is almost always a cause for immediate concern; after all, it is the source of our manhood. More often than not, any unusual appearance such as discolouration, dry skin, red spots or bumps may result in considerable anxiety.

It is not uncommon for men, especially those with darker skin, to have slight variations in the colour of the penis. In fact, for men of all races, it is normal for the penis to be slightly darker than the skin on the rest of the body. This applies also to the labia of women.

When an adolescent male or female undergoes puberty, the body produces the sex hormones, testosterone and oestrogen, which results in the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Excess levels of these hormones in the genitals respond to melanocytes, the skin cells that cause pigmentation. These physiological changes are responsible for darker genitalia in both men and women.

Mild penile discolouration is generally nothing to worry about. In fact, during sexual arousal, the penis can take on a reddish, sometimes almost purplish colour, due to increased blood flow to the organ. However, there are other causes of penile discolouration that may be more severe and require treatment.

 

6 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration

 

via GIPHY

1. Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction to contact with an irritant. This can happen anywhere on the body, including the penis. When this happens, it is usually caused by latex condom usage. The skin of the penis can turn red and itchy. Sometimes the skin can break causing serous discharge, and bacterial infection can occur. Mild cases can be treated with a corticosteroid cream. Non-latex condoms can be used if you have a latex allergy.

 

2. Penile Injury

A penile injury can lead to rapid discolouration due to bruising, in the form of purple, dark brown or even greenish hues. Sometimes, a red patch with prominent blood vessels just under the surface of the skin can occur due to a hematoma. This usually fades after several days and treatment is typically not necessary.

However, if there is severe pain along with the discolouration after a traumatic episode, immediate medical attention is required as this could be due to a penile fracture, which is a more severe issue.

 

3. Lichen Sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is a lifelong condition that can go through periods of remission and flare-ups, and is characterised by white patches on the penis. It is more common in those who are uncircumcised. In addition to blotchy white spots, the skin of the penis can also become itchy, fragile and tear or bleed easily. Other symptoms include painful sex and an inability to retract the foreskin fully.

The cause of lichen sclerosus is unknown, but an overactive immune system or an imbalance of hormones may play a role. It is not contagious and cannot be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Treatment usually includes a strong steroid ointment applied directly to the affected skin. If only the foreskin is affected, circumcision may be advised.

 

4. Penile Melanosis or Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)

Penile melanosis, or PIH, is a benign condition simply caused by overproduction of melanin, in which the skin can appear in a wide variety of colors including different shades of brown, grey or even blue.

Overproduction usually occurs after an injury to the skin of the penis, the most common being excessive rubbing of the penis from vigorous sex or self-pleasuring. It will fade over time, or if a man is bothered by it, possible treatments such as topical retinol (vitamin A) every night before bed, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion can help to reduce the discolouration.

 

5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Purple sores on the penis can occur as a result of genital herpes or syphilis. These STDs can be accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, fever, itchiness, burning, and fatigue. If STD is suspected, it is imperative to head to a clinic to see a physician as soon as possible to be tested and get treated.

Also Read

 

6. Penile Cancer

Penile cancer tends to start on the skin of the penis and spreads towards the deeper tissues. 95% are squamous cell carcinomas, while penile melanoma accounts for 0.7%. Penile cancer is rare and the cause is not entirely known, but risk factors include smoking, HIV and high risk strains of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include changes in the colour and thickness of the skin of the penis, foul smelling discharge under the foreskin, and abnormal non-resolving growths or ulceration of the penis. A diagnosis of penile cancer requires an urgent biopsy.

 

There are other conditions that can cause penile discolouration. It is important to determine the exact cause as treatment varies according to the cause. It is always best to visit a doctor for a physical examination and proper evaluation.

If you need to speak to our doctors , please visit our men’s clinics.  Alternatively, you can email us hello@dtapclinic.com or call us for an appointment.

 

Take Care.

 

Other Read:

Also on DTAP’s blog: std check up singapore

Sexually Transmitted Infections: More Than 1 Million New Cases Every Single Day

The World Health Organisation (WHO) released a report in June 2019 stating that every single day, there are more than 1 million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among people aged 15-49 years. These are just from 4 infections – chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis, and syphilis.

This amounts to more than 376 million new cases annually. This is probably a lower number than the actual prevalence in the global population, as these are just the reported cases. On average, approximately 1 in 25 people globally have at least one of these STIs, with some experiencing multiple infections at the same time.

 

About these 4 STIs

Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea

Chlamydia and gonorrhoea are bacterial infections that can be spread through sexual intercourse (oral, vaginal or anal). They can be asymptomatic in some people, but in others can cause urinary symptoms such as penile or vaginal pain, urethral discharge, pain on passing urine, urinary frequency and urgency.

They can also cause irregular spotting in females. The long term complications of untreated chlamydia and gonorrhoea are pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in females and infertility in both sexes.

 Also Read:

Trichomoniasis

Trichomoniasis is caused by infection by a parasite transmitted during sexual intercourse. The parasite usually infects the lower genital tract (vagina or penis). It can also cause symptoms such as those mentioned above.

Also Read: STD Symptoms in Women

 

Syphilis

Syphilis is a bacterial infection that can result in genital ulcers and a rash. In its later stages, syphilis can affect your eyes, ears, heart, nerves, bones, kidneys and liver. It can cause serious cardiovascular and neurological disease and even death.

Also Read: Signs & Symptoms of Syphilis: Painless STD Sores & Rashes

All four diseases are associated with an increased risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV. Transmission of these diseases during pregnancy can lead to serious consequences for babies including stillbirth, neonatal death, low birth-weight and prematurity, sepsis, blindness, pneumonia, and congenital deformities.

Also Read:

It is important to note that most cases are asymptomatic, meaning people may not have any symptoms at all and are unaware they have an infection if they do not test for these STIs.

 

How Do We Go About Managing These STIs?

These 4 infections are easily detectable, preventable and curable.

STD Testing: There are multiple ways to detect these STIs, but in general, Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Trichomonas can be detected with a swab test in females or a urine test in males. Syphilis can be detected with a blood test. Read: Comprehensive STD Screening

STD Treatment: After being treated with antibiotics, these infections can be fully cleared from the body. However, because a significant proportion of people can be without symptoms, these infections can go untreated in a person for long periods of time, wreaking havoc on their genitourinary and reproductive tract. These people can also spread these infections to other people, exacerbating this persistent and endemic health threat.

A point to note is that some strains of these infections (Gonorrhoea in particular) are developing multi-drug resistance and evolving into “super-bugs” that are increasingly difficult to treat with current antibiotics. Significant resources are being directed to research in this area, but the most important thing is to get tested and treated early.

 

Who Should Get Tested?

If you have never been tested for STIs before, but have been exposed to sexual encounters in the past, we would recommend you to get tested.

 We also recommend anyone who has had a new sexual encounter to get tested, even if you had used condoms. While it is true that condoms greatly reduce the risk of transmission of STIs, it does not absolutely foolproof as unsurprisingly in the real world they are not always used perfectly.

 Of course, if you have any symptoms, please do get tested and treated.

 

Other STIs

The above 4 STIs are just 4 of the many STIs that you can acquire through sexual contact. There are other STIs that we are concerned about. Other STIs such as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C, Human Papillomavirus (HPV), Chancroid, Molluscum, Pubic Lice and Scabies are some others that we are also concerned about.

It is important that sexually active individuals read up and learn about these STIs to know the signs, symptoms, and modes of transmission to better protect themselves. Knowing more about these STIs will also encourage a person to get treated early should they develop such symptoms.

 

How Do You Reduce Your Risk of Contracting These STIs?

Abstinence is the only way to reduce your risk to zero.

If you are sexually active, use barrier protection such as condoms, the right way. You can also speak to your partner to get tested for STIs before engaging in sexual activity.  A mutually monogamous relationship also carries a lower risk of STIs than having multiple sexual partners.

 If you are sexually active with multiple sexual partners, get yourself tested regularly and treated. The presence of one STI can increase your risk of contracting another one more easily. Most STIs can easily be detected through swabs, urine or blood tests at your doctors. These are rather pain-free and minimally invasive, so there should be no fear to get tested!

There are some STIs that are preventable through vaccinations. HPV Vaccines are available against certain strains of HPV that may cause warts, cervical, anal and penile cancer. Effective vaccines against Hepatitis B are available as well.

 

Conclusion

In summary, the WHO has highlighted the 4 STIs specifically as they are the one which can be completely eradicated from the body if treated properly. But there are other STIs that we should be concerned about too. The best thing you can do is to protect yourself against these STIs through the above-mentioned suggestions.

Get yourself tested regularly if you have new sexual partners. If you have any symptoms, get yourself treated early, and avoid sexual contact until you have been treated and cleared by the doctor as well. 

Take Care & Stay safe!


Other Interesting Reads:

  1. An Overview of STD – From an STD Doctor
  2. The HIV Pro-Virus DNA Test can be done 10 days post exposure.
  3. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  4. Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?
  5. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  6. Sexual Health Advice for Travellers
  7. Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?
  8. What You Need To Know about HPV, Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear & HPV Vaccination
  9. 11 Causes of Dyspareunia (Pain During Intercourse)
  10. What is HPV Vaccination (Gardasil 9)
  11. 10 Causes of abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps
  12. An Overview of Gonorrhoea
  13. Genital Warts: The Cauliflower-Like Lumps on the Genitals
  14. Syphilis Symptoms (Painless STD Sores & STD Rashes) 


Also see: wart removal singapore, hiv screening, std check up singapore

Counterfeit HPV Vaccines (Gardasil 9) in Hong Kong

A recent news article surfaced a few days ago reporting that a private medical clinic in Hong Kong was supplied with parallel-imported counterfeit Gardasil 9 HPV vaccines, and had been promoting their vaccination service to visitors from mainland China.

Upon administration of the aforementioned vaccines, some of these patients developed severe side effects. As such, this matter has come under intense scrutiny by public health authorities in Hong Kong and resulted in a public uproar. – Counterfeit HPV Vaccines

Chinese Version of this content can be found here: 水货九价HPV疫苗 – 到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受假药?

 

You may read more about this in the website links below:

 

It is no doubt alarming that even health vaccines have counterfeit versions, and inevitably may cause deep concern among members of the general public. If it could happen in a metropolitan city like Hong Kong, it certainly could happen in Singapore too.

With this in mind, what measures can one take to avoid receiving counterfeit medications?

One could seek confirmation from the Health Sciences Authority Health Products Regulation Group, which ensures that drugs, innovative therapeutics, medical devices and health-related products in Singapore are regulated to meet required standards of safety, quality and efficacy. Or simply, visit a doctor that you can trust.

 

How Do I Know if My Gardasil 9 HPV Vaccines is Original




At DTAP, we are very committed to ensuring the health and safety of our patients, therefore we only provide 100% authentic and genuine products.

Our Gardasil 9 HPV vaccines are obtained from MSD (or Merck & Co) Pharmaceuticals from the USA, and have undergone stringent product testing and quality control inspections.

The product packaging has descriptions in English and Chinese and is labelled clearly with the “MSD” logo and a unique serial or batch number, thus ensuring that patients can have peace of mind when receiving these vaccines.

Kindly approach any of our DTAP clinics if you are considering HPV testing or to undergo the Gardasil 9 vaccines. For visitors from abroad, the nearest DTAP clinic from Singapore Changi Airport is located in Siglap, only a convenient 10-minute taxi ride away.

 

If you would like to learn more about HPV and the Gardasil-9 vaccine, you may read about it here:


水货九价HPV疫苗 – 到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受假药?

选择正确就症方法   免遭问题疫苗困扰

 

近日新闻媒体关于水货九价HPV疫苗流入香港,中国游客打飞的远赴香港为其接种,且有病患者注射水货疫苗后,出现严重过敏反应的报道纷纷热议。目前就此问题疫苗事件已引起香港及中国民众的高度关注,应该提高警觉。

您可在以下的网站进一步了解报道详情:

 

什么是九价HPV疫苗? (视频)

9合1 加卫苗(Gardasil 9)疫苗可预防9种病毒株的人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)所引起的癌症与疾病。
HPV是一种可分为两大类型的病毒,一组可致癌而另一组可致疣或乳头状瘤。
现今有超过一百种HPV病毒株并且每一株都有自己指定的数字,例如HPV16或HPV52。迄今为止,能致疣的HPV病毒株不会致癌而能致癌的病毒株并不会致疣!
HPV受诱惑于并仅活于体内的鳞状上皮细胞。这类细胞可存在于皮肤表面和潮湿的粘膜表面,例如:

  1. 阴道、肛门、子宫颈、外阴部(围绕阴道外)
  2. 阴茎的内包皮和尿道
  3. 内鼻、口、喉气管(主要呼吸管)和支气管(较小的呼吸管,分支于气管)
  4. 内眼睑

因此,这些表面的感染导致疣和癌细胞的形成。
9合1加卫苗有助于防止9种HPV病毒株的感染,因而适当的命名为9合1加卫苗。疫苗里的9种HPV病毒株当中,有2种用于预防疣(HPV16和18),而其余的7种用于预防癌症(HPV16、18、31、33、45、52与58)。
关于癌症,HPV是大多数宫颈癌、阴道癌、外阴癌、肛门癌、阴茎癌和口咽癌(咽喉癌和舌癌)病例的主要致癌病毒。

疫苗针竟然能会有假货?

这种惊人的新闻难免让大众感受到不少忧虑。这种事件能够发生在香港这样的大都市,同样的也能在新加坡发生。

人们到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受假药?

首先,可以向新加坡卫生科学局 (Health Sciences Authority) 的医疗保健产品管理组 (Health Products Regulation Group) 寻求确认。

该组织确保新加坡的药品、创新疗法、医疗器械和健康相关产品受到监管,以满足安全、质量和功效方面的必要标准。其次,可以去有良好信誉的诊所就诊。

 

在新加坡DTAP诊所,我们非常关心病患者的安全与健康,因此只采用百分百真价实的疫苗。

我们的九价HPV疫苗是从美国默沙东 (MSD, or Merck & Co) 药厂引进,疫苗经过严格、专业的监管和测试,疫苗包装上面附有中英文说明,也有“MSD”字样,并且包装盒子上面会有一串防伪码以保证患者放心、安全的接受注射。

我怎么知道是否是原版的九价HPV疫苗产品



如果您在考虑进行HPV筛查或接种九价HPV疫苗,即可到我们DTAP诊所咨询。对于外国的游客,您可到离新加坡樟宜机场最近的DTAP诊所(位于实乞纳Siglap),仅需十分钟车程,非常方便。

 

若读者想深入了解HPV,可以参考以下资料:

 

HPV到底是什么?

人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV)是最常见的性传播感染,估计多达百分之七十的人在生命中某个时候会感染到HPVHPV具有很强的传染能力,可通过与受感染的皮肤或粘膜直接接触而传播。HPV最常感染的身体部位包括阴茎、阴道、肛门、咽喉和阴部。

目前已经确认的HPV病毒有一百余种。其中,至少有十三种与癌症有密切联系,而被称为高风险性类型。其次,十六型和十八型加起来已占子宫颈癌的百分之七十。HPV除了会导致子宫颈癌之外,还会增加外阴、阴茎、肛门和咽喉的癌症风险。

其他的HPV类型被称为低风险性类型,反而会导致疣。疣(尤其是生殖器部位)是皮肤上难看的肉色肿块,经常被描述为椰菜花的形状。

 并非所有感染HPV的人都会患上癌症或疣。事实上,绝大多数感染HPV病患者根本不会出现任何症状,并且病毒会在不知不觉的传染给其他人。这就是HPV如此流行的主要原因之一。

HPV感染有治疗方法吗?

HPV如今是没有特效药物可以清除,只能靠提高机体免疫力,产生抵抗力清除病毒达到自愈。幸运的是,这种情况经常发生。一项研究成果报告估计,高达百分之八十的HPV感染者能够在两年内自然将病毒从体内清除。然而,有些患者无法清除体内的病毒,因此可能患上癌症或生殖器疣。

 

是否有HPV筛查测试?

我们可以通过医学测试来筛查与HPV相关的子宫颈、咽喉和肛门癌变或癌前病变。通过这种方法,医生可以确定哪些病人有可能患上癌症,并在他们真正患上癌症之前对他们进行治疗。此外,还有一些测试可以在宫颈、肛门和喉咙中寻找某些高危HPV类型。患有十六型或十八型等高风险类型的患者需要较积极的观察或治疗,以防止他们患上癌症。

 

接种HPV疫苗 (Gardasil 9)

预防HPV感染最有效的方法就是接种HPV疫苗。最新的HPV疫苗可预防九价HPV (Gardasil 9),但也可交叉预防许多其他病毒类型。由于大多数与HPV相关的癌症仅由少数类型引起,因此HPV疫苗可将罹患HPV相关癌症的风险降低百分之九十以上。

 

谁适合接种人类乳头瘤病毒疫苗?

该疫苗适用于男性和女性。九岁以上的男孩和女孩都可以接种疫苗。美国食品和药物管理局最新报告报道显示,只要是四十五岁以下的男性和女性都可以从中受益。疫苗通常是在六个月内注射三次,较年轻的患者只需要注射两次。

如果你想了解更多接种HPV疫苗 (Gardasil 9), 请发邮件给我们 hello@dtapclinic.com我们所有的诊所都提供HPV筛查或接种九价HPV疫苗医疗服务


 

Bumps on Vaginal Area – Vaginal Lumps & Vaginal Bumps

Lumps and bumps over the external genitalia (the vulva) or vagina are a fairly common concern that ladies may have. These can be normal or benign, or due to infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and less commonly, due to cancers (malignancy).

Here are some of the Causes of Vaginal Lumps & Bumps:

1) Benign bumps

Causes of benign bumps in the genital region include vestibular papillomatosis, Fordyce spots, ingrown hairs and folliculitis, various cysts (sebaceous cysts, Bartholin cysts).

Vestibular papillomatosis

This is a variation of normal anatomy. Vestibular papillomatosis appears as multiple, symmetrical, tiny bumps or finger-like projections over the labia minora and vestibule (vaginal opening). This can often be mistaken for warts and may thus be an undue cause for worry but there are features which help differentiate it from warts. No treatment is required for vestibular papillomatosis. It is harmless and it is NOT due to infection and cannot be spread to your sexual partners.

Fordyce spots

These are due to enlarged oil glands, which appear as tiny (1-3mm) whitish or yellowish bumps over the labia minora. These can also occur in other parts of the body, for instance around the edges of the lips or on the penis in men. They are completely harmless and painless and are part of normal anatomy. There is no need for any treatment or worry.

Folliculitis and ingrown hairs

Ingrown hairs may manifest as bumps, particularly in someone who shaves. Both ingrown hairs, as well as hair follicles, can get infected (known as folliculitis), resulting in small, red, tender bumps. Usually, topical creams will suffice for treatment.  Good hygiene, particularly relating to hair removal, is helpful in reducing the risk of folliculitis.

Cysts

Cysts are small round bumps that can be felt underneath the skin. These may arise from structures in the skin layer itself e.g. sebaceous cysts, or from glands which are found in the genital region near the labia minora (Bartholin’s glands).

Sebaceous Cysts

Sebaceous cysts are the result of oil glands which get blocked. They are painless unless they become infected. Most of the time, they can be left alone—but in the event of infection or if they become too large, incision and drainage or removal may be necessary.

Bartholin Cysts

Bartholin cysts are the result of Bartholin’s glands which are blocked. These cysts can enlarge, become infected and tender. They also have a tendency to recur and a minor surgery to remove them may be required.

2) Infections and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Warts

These are caused by certain strains (type 6, 11) of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). They appear as small skin-coloured bumps or irregular, cauliflower-like skin growths. They and can occur in isolation but are usually multiple. Genital warts usually appear anytime between weeks to 8 months (average 3 months) from the time of HPV infection and are highly infectious. The clinical course of warts can vary – in some individuals, genital warts may spontaneously resolve, while in others they may stay the same or increase in size and number.
The treatment of genital warts does not remove the underlying HPV infection and the only medication available against this is the HPV vaccine. The HPV vaccine protects against future infection but does not get rid of existing strains, so it is best to get vaccinated as soon as possible before one is exposed to more strains of HPV.
Read: Cervical Cancer, PAP SMEAR & HPV Vaccination – What you need to know

Molluscum contagiosum

This is skin infection caused by the Molluscum contagiosum virus which causes multiple small, pearly white or skin coloured bumps, sometimes with a central dimple (“central umbilication”). These are painless, non-itchy and can occur not just in the genital region but elsewhere on the body as well. The virus is spread through direct skin contact, or through contaminated clothing and towels. These lesions are harmless and will generally resolve within 6 months to a year (occasionally longer). Treatments available to address these bumps include topical medications like imiquimoid cream, freezing, and electrosurgery (laser).

Herpes

One of the stages of genital herpes is painful genital blisters – red bumps which eventually become fluid filled and later burst to form ulcers. Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus which can be transmitted through secretions such as saliva or genital fluids. There is no cure for herpes, but antiviral medications are prescribed when an individual has a painful flare of blisters and ulcers.

Read: Genital Warts, Genital Blister & Genital Ulcer – Causes and Treatments
Read: Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sores & Rashes

3) Malignancy

Vaginal cancer

Vulval or vaginal cancer are rare but serious causes of a vaginal lump or bump. These may be accompanied by other features such as persistent itching, pain, a persistent ulcer, and abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge.

Melanoma

Vaginal melanoma (a type of cancer of the skin) can appear as a pigmented lump which may be associated with itching, bleeding and pain.

Malignancies tend to occur in older women but as their symptoms can be rather nonspecific, it is best to get any abnormal lump/bump checked.

If you wish to speak to female doctors if you have experienced the above signs and symptoms, call us or email us for an appointment at hello@dtapclinic.com.

Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. What Is the Cause & Treatment For Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  2. How Late Can a Period Be (Delayed Menstrual Cycle)
  3. 10 Causes of Abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps
  4. 11 Causes of Dyspareunia (Pain During Intercourse)
  5. What You Need to Know about HPV Vaccination, Cervical Cancer & Pap Smear
  6. Why Do I Have Abnormal Vaginal Discharge
  7. What is HPV Vaccination – Gardasil 9
  8. Sex During Period (Sex & Menstruation) What To Know

Perianal Warts (Peri-Anal Warts) & Anal Warts Removal

Perianal Warts (aka Peri-Anal Warts, Condyloma Acuminata) are flesh coloured, cauliflower-like growths in and around the anus that is caused by HPV (Human Papilloma Virus).

How Do I Know I Have Perianal Warts?

One of the first occurrences where people note this is new bleeding from the rectum, especially after wiping with toilet paper. Of course, there are many other causes of rectal bleeding, the most common being piles and the most deadly being some form of rectal cancer.
The other way people notice this is when their partner sees it and tells them about it. One would be able to feel the growth with your fingers and also see them with a mirror.

These perianal warts are painless and itchless.

How Can I Catch Perianal Warts?

These cauliflower-like perianal warts are caused by the virus HPV. This is spread through unprotected anal intercourse with a partner who has HPV.
Most often, HPV is symptomless and you can catch HPV from your partner even if he seems completely well.

If I Have Perianal Warts Can I Pass It To My Partner?

Yes the virus which causes perianal warts – HPV, can be passed on to your partner during unprotected anal intercourse.
In the situation, you do not have noticeable perianal warts but your partner develops penile warts after anal intercourse with you, you should also have yourself check for perianal warts and HPV.
Also, you can learn more about symptoms of other STD one can contract from Anal sex

How Do I Check For Perianal Warts?

During a physical examination, what you will tend to notice is “cauliflower-like” growths around the anus. These are usually flesh coloured or a slightly lighter or darker shade.
Other growths that may appear around the anus would be skin tags which can mimic perianal warts to the untrained eye, or even on rare occasions, ulcers which may be red flags of non-benign growths.
The best advice we can offer is to see our doctors to determine whether you truly have Perianal Warts or another condition. We may then take a sample of the growth and send it to the laboratory for confirmation.
All our clinics in Singapore provide Rapid HPV Testing (Next Day Results)
You can learn more about

How is Perianal Warts Treated?

We have covered in this article “How to Get Rid of Genital Warts” some of the commonly used treatments for Perianal warts. We will summarize them here again for your perusal.
The 3 main modalities we use are Creams and lotions, Freezing the wart or “Laser” electrocautery of the wart.

1. Creams and Lotions

Aldara Cream (Imiquimod) is effective for Perianal Warts. The cream is applied 3-4x a week nightly and left for 8 hours overnight. This warts treatment process is repeated for about 6 weeks to get full eradication of the wart. If too much of the cream is applied, some may experience redness and burning of the area as well.
Of course, there is also a small percentage who do not see full resolution and may need other treatments. If too much cream is applied it can cause redness and even blistering of the surrounding skin.

2. Freezing

With a special device that controls the release of liquid nitrogen, we can also freeze the wart. Most people see a resolution after 2-3 freezing treatments over a month. This process is usually painless and no anaesthesia is needed prior.

3. “Laser” Electrocautery

This is usually done in 1 sitting and is enough to eradicate the wart. However, this process often stings and would require some form of anaesthetic to numb the pain prior.

How Can I Protect Myself From Perianal Warts?

One of the best ways to protect yourself is to use a condom if you are intending to have anal sex. This however only confers a rough 30% protection against HPV infection.
There are more than 100 strains of HPV viruses out there, 4 of them are the main high-risk ones causing cervical cancer, anal cancer, throat cancer and penile cancer.
There are new vaccinations available which protect you against these 4 high-risk strains and 5 other low-risk strains which are wart causing. You can read more about Gardasil 9 (HPV vaccination).
Recently the FDA (food drug administration of the USA) announced that Gardasil 9 should be expanded to include Men and Women from 27-45 years of age, thereby providing greater protection against HPV and the risks of those above-mentioned cancers or warts.
You can speak to our doctors to find out more about this HPV vaccination.

Are There Any Other Diseases Associated with Perianal Warts?

Yes as described above there are risks of getting anal cancer, throat cancer, cervical cancer (women) and penile cancer from HPV.

Are There Other STDs Associated with Perianal Warts?

Perianal warts are known to be associated with Rectal Gonorrhoea, HIV, Syphilis and Hepatitis B
If you are interested in HPV Treatment or Anal Warts Removal and Rapid STD Screening for other HPV Strain & other STDs, you can visit any of our clinics.
You can call us or email us for an appointment at hello@dtapclinic.com.
Take Care!


For more information on other STDS.

  1. An Overview of STD by an STD Doctor
  2. Is HPV Vaccine Necessary for Males?
  3. Mycoplasma Genitalium Testing & Treatment
  4. 11 Causes of Penile Itching & Pubic Itch
  5. Sexual Health Advice for Travellers 
  6. HIV & STD in the Singapore Commercial Sex Scene 
  7. What is HIV / AIDS Signs and Symptoms
  8. Ouch! 10 Causes of Penile Pain (Pain in the Penis)
  9. 7 FAQs on HIV PrEP (Pre Exposure Prophylaxis)
  10. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination For Men Who Have Sex With Men
  11. A Guide to HIV Prevention Pills – (HIV PEP & HIV PrEP)
  12. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They From Other STD-Related Rashes
  13. What Are The Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge
  14. HIV Window Period – Timelines For Accurate HIV Testing
  15. Herpes Simplex Virus – Everything You Need to Know
  16. The Causes of Genital Blister, Genital Ulcer & Genital Sore