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How Can HIV Be Transmitted? – A quick overview

The neighbouring country has just built a wall to keep outsiders out. These outsiders do not have a passport and are trying to get over the wall through different means. The HIV virus is one of these outsiders, they will try all means to get across the wall

We will discuss in this article,  the vehicles the HIV virus can adopt to get over your wall. From taking a plane and DEFINITELY getting over the wall, to taking a ship around the border and MAYBE getting around the wall and lastly climbing over the wall which is NOT possible.

The HIV virus will need a vehicle to get past the wall and in the medical context, the HIV virus from a positive person will need to come into contact with a negative person. The fluids which carry the most viruses are blood and semen whereas saliva and vaginal fluid hold much less of the HIV virus.

 

DEFINITELY getting over the wall – definite transmission, for every 10,000 attempts this will be the number of times successful the HIV virus will get over the wall and cause infection during that activity

  • Blood transfusion – 9250/10000 (although this is rare, it still happens: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-india-36457517).
  • Needle sharing in intravenous drug use – 63/10000.
  • Needlestick injury – 23/10000.
  • Receptive anal sexual intercourse – 138/10000.
  • Insertive anal sexual intercourse – 11/10000
  • Receptive penile-vaginal sexual intercourse – 8/10000
  • Insertive penile-vaginal sexual intercourse – 4/10000
  • Receptive and insertive oral sexual intercourse – low (too low for accurate numbers).

 

According to the Singapore Ministry of Health UPDATE ON THE HIV/AIDS SITUATION IN SINGAPORE 2014.

hiv-transmission-risk

Estimated risk per exposure to HIV transmission: assume that the ‘source partner’ is always HIV-positive. For a partner of unknown status, the risk is affected by the prevalence of HIV in the relevant community – i.e., the chance that the partner does, in fact, have HIV. Unless otherwise stated, the sexual acts are always without a condom.

 

MAYBE getting around the wall – theoretical situations where there isn’t enough scientific data on where the HIV virus may get around the wall

  • Presence of blood getting into contact with an open wound, ulcer – this is a possibility but the risk is lower and unlikely. Open wounds should be treated early to reduce the risk of other infections such as bacterial infections. The risk of bacterial infections into an open wound is often higher than the risk of an HIV infection.
  • Blood getting into contact on mucosal membrane surfaces such as the eyes or mouth – this is again a possibility, but extremely unlikely
  • Dried blood on surfaces – some studies have shown that the HIV virus can survive in dried blood for a few days. However for that blood to infect another person, it would have to cross a thick layer of the person’s skin, mucous membranes and get into the bloodstream. The environment has to favourable for this to happen and transmission through dried blood is often very unlikely.

 

NO WAY of getting over the wall – not possible for transmission

  • Being in the same room as an HIV positive person and breathing the same air
  • Sitting on a toilet seat or touching a door handle
  • Hugging, Kissing (not french kissing), Shaking hands
  • Drinking from the same water cooler, water fountain
  • Sharing of food utensils.
  • Sharing equipment at the gym
  • Biting or scratching superficially that does not break the skin surface or draw blood.
  • Skin to skin contact with another person

 

We hope this short illustration answers and highlights questions people may have over possible ways of HIV transmission. Fluid-fluid contact is necessary for transmission and without this, there is NO risk for HIV transmission.

If you have any new questions, please feel free to ask them on https://www.dtapclinic.com/forum/

Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. What are the Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge?
  3. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  4. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  5. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  6. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  7. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  8. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  9. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  10. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  11. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  12. 10 Common HIV related Opportunistic Infections

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