Movember 2020 | Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer represents only about one percent to two percent of all cancers in males, but is one of the most common cancers in young men. It occurs predominantly in young males aged 20-40 years old.

Signs & Symptoms

Typically, patients present to their doctor with a painless lump in one or both testes. Occasionally, there may be a heavy or aching sensation in the testes. In advanced cancer, other symptoms may be present. For example, if cancer has spread to the lungs, there may be shortness of breath.


Common Causes

Males who have a history of undescended testes (testes that did not descend to lie in the scrotum during development) have a much higher chance of developing testicular cancer. Other risk factors include history of testicular cancer in the other testis and family history of testicular cancer.

Diagnosis

Ultrasound of the testes will locate and delineate the size of the testicular lump.

Blood tests are taken for tumour markers consisting of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). 

A computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest, abdomen, pelvis, and occasionally, the brain, is also performed to find out the extent of cancer.

Prevention:

There’s no known effective prevention for testicular cancer. However, regular testicle self examination may be useful.

Testicular Self-exam

So start a conversation with your friends and loved ones. Create awareness. Encourage those at risk to seek help. Together we can help to reduce disability and deaths among men from the above conditions.