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Candidiasis in Men


Candida or yeast infection can affect men too. This may lead to a condition known as balanitis — inflammation of the head of the penis.

Yeast infections in men are common because the fungus that causes yeast infections (candida) is normally present on skin, especially moist skin. 

Balanitis is more common in uncircumcised men.


Signs and symptoms of Balanitis

  • Moist skin on the penis, possibly with areas of a thick, white substance collecting in skin folds
  • Areas of shiny, white skin on the penis
  • Redness, itching or a burning sensation on the penis

You may be more likely to develop balanitis from a yeast infection if you:

  • Aren’t circumcised
  • Use antibiotics for prolonged periods
  • Have diabetes
  • Have an impaired immune system, such as with HIV
  • Are overweight
  • Practice poor hygiene

If you and your partner both have symptoms of a yeast infection, it’s important that you both be treated to avoid reinfecting each other.


Treatment options

Treatment includes topical creams or oral medication. Usually this treatment works well in clearing the infection.

However, in some men, this infection may be recurrent and occurs several times a year. This happens more often among men with diabetes as they are at higher risk of infection. In cases of recurrent balanitis, circumcision would be the best solution to prevent recurrent balanitis.

Do see a doctor if you are experiencing any of these symptoms.

Penile Cancer – 7 Things You Need to Know!

The mere mention of penile cancer conjures up much fear and uncertainty among public imagination, especially among grown men. It is not a common cancer in Singapore, hence it is not well known to the public. We shall explore more details in this article about this little known cancer.

What exactly is penile cancer?

Penile Cancer happens when the normal cells of the skin and tissue of the penis turns malignant and grows beyond control, forming a tumour. Penile cancer may eventually spread to other parts of the body including other glands, lymph nodes or organs.

Penile cancer is typically a disease of older men, with most patients around the age of 60 when diagnosed. In developed countries like the USA, Europe, Singapore, penile cancer is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cancers diagnosed. This is in contrast to less developed countries like South America, Parts of Africa and Asia where penile cancer can account for 10 to 20% of all cancers diagnosed.


Signs and Symptoms of penile cancer

The majority of penile cancers arise from the head of the penis or from the foreskin. The most common findings on examination is a painless lump or an ulcer. The symptoms may include bleeding, rash or balanitis. 30 to 60 percent of patients also have swollen lymph nodes in the groin as well. 


What is the cause of penile cancer?

The majority of penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its many variants. Other cancers which can affect the penis include basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Kaposi Sarcoma (KS), melanomas and other lymphomas.


Who is at risk for penile cancer?

  • Patients with previous known medical condition of the penis. This would include warts, infections, previous injury, tears or strictures
  • Phimosis. Uncircumcised males sometimes have a thickening and scarring of the foreskin. This is a condition known as phimosis, which is a difficulty in retracting the foreskin over the head of the penis. 
  • Human Papillomavirus infection (HPV). HPV can be found in 30% to 50% of penile cancers.
  • Smoking and Tobacco Exposure
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection
  • Patients with previous Ultraviolet treatment for psoriasis.

Who to prevent penile cancer?

  • Patients who have phimosis can consider getting a circumcision
  • Vaccination against HPV early can also be useful in preventing infection and possible penile/anal cancer. Screening for High Risk HPV through a swab can also be useful in patients who have risk factors.
  • Patients who are smokers should definitely stop smoking not only to prevent penile cancers but other forms of cancers as well.

What are the treatments for penile cancer?

Treatment of penile cancer depends on the type and staging of the cancer. If disease is limited, organ preserving treatment options include topical medications, lasers, radiation therapy or micrographic surgery. If the cancer is advanced and locally extensive, a partial or even full amputation of the penis might be required.


What are the complications of penile cancer?

After treatment, patients might be faced with complications depending on the kind of treatment. For organ preservation treatments, issues with cosmesis, erectile dysfunction and reduced sensation are common. For surgical treatments, for example a penile amputation, patients might require an external opening known as a urethrostomy for urination. Patients might also require a surgical reconstruction of the amputated organ for cosmetic issues.


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Diabetes in Men & 5 Associated Men’s Health Conditions

By 2030, the number of Singapore residents above 40 with diabetes is projected to increase by another 200,000 from about 400,000 today. 

The prevalence of diabetes among adults increased from 8.2% in 2004 to 11.3% in 2010. A higher proportion of men were diabetic (12.3%) compared with women (10.4%). We can imagine how the number would have increased even more by today.

For men living with type 2 diabetes, they are also at higher risk for certain conditions as compared to other men. In this article I will share more about unique mens health issues faced by men with type 2 diabetes.


1. Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

According to a study published in Journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, men with diabetes are much more likely to experience Erectile Dysfunction than men who don’t have diabetes. High blood glucose causes damage to small blood vessels and/or  nerves like the ones that supply the penis. Hence poorly controlled diabetes contributes to Erectile Dsyfunction.

Other than sugar control, there are also some diabetic medicines that causes side effects like ED which adds on to the problem.

Other than diabetes, these men are usually also obese and suffering from hypertension, both of which also adds on to the risk for ED.


2. Urinary Tract Infection: 

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is usually caused by bacteria. It can affect any part of the urinary tract. Anywhere including the kidneys, bladder, ureters, urethra, and, in men, the prostate gland. Most of the time the infection is in the bladder. Women are 10 times more likely to get a UTI as compared to men. However men with diabetes are at a higher risk of getting UTIs than men without diabetes.

Why are men with diabetes more prone to UTIs? There are a few possible reasons. One, men with diabetes have poor circulation. This reduces the ability of white blood cells to travel in the body and fight off any kind of infection. Two, high glucose levels can also raise the risk of a UTI. Three, some men with diabetes have poor ability to empty their bladders. What happens is, urine stays in the bladder for too long and this becomes conducive for bacteria to grow.


3. Balanitis

Balanitis is an infection of the skin on the head (glans) of the penis. In uncircumcised men, this area is covered by the foreskin, or prepuce. Balanitis can occur in both circumcised and uncircumcised men, however, uncircumcised men are at higher risk for balanitis and also recurrent infections.  

Any man can develop balanitis, but the condition is most likely to occur in men who have phimosis (tight foreskin) or poor hygiene. Other than this group of men, men with diabetes are also at high risk of balanitis especially if they have poor sugar control. When sugar is poorly controlled, excess sugar may be exreted in the urine. This sugar rich urine when trapped underneath the foreskin, will provide a conducive environment for yeast and bacteria. On top of that, men with poorly controlled diabetes is also unable to fight of infections effectively. Read: What are the Causes of Balanitis


4. Posthitis

Posthitis is inflammation of the foreskin It is characterized by swelling or redness of the foreskin. In some cases, it may happen together with tears on the foreskin which may be quite painful. It is usually caused by an infection like fungus or bacteria. In some cases, it might be due to tears in the skin due to abrasion or friction during intercourse. The selling may lead to phimosis and tightness of the foreskin which makes it difficult for the skin to retract. 

Circumcision is usually a definite treatment for men who has recurrent balanitis posthitis or UTI. It is a very effective treatment to reduce the risk of UTIs, balanitis and also there won’t be anymore posthitis when the foreskin is removed.


5. Low Testosterone

 In the past few years, scientists have found some connection between low testosterone and diabetes. One study showed that in 2,100 men over age 45, the odds of having low testosterone were 2.1 times higher in men with diabetes. Low testosterone doesn’t cause diabetes but it might be the other way around. Men with diabetes might develop low testosterone. Read Andropause

A link between diabetes and low testosterone is well established. Men with diabetes are more likely to have low testosterone while men with low testosterone are more likely to develop diabetes as well. Testosterone improves the body’s ability to take up sugae in response to insulin. Men with low testosterone may have insulin resistance. In this condition, their body need to produce more insulin in order to reduce the same amount of sugar in the blood.

Read: Low Testosterne & Low Libido


All in All

So if you happen to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, do keep a look out for some of the issues mentioned above. If you happen to have any of the above conditions, do consider health screening as any of the condtions might be an indication of diabetes. Do consult your doctor if you are experiencing any of the above symptoms and conditions.


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Common Causes Of Bumps & White Spots On Penis & Foreskin

This situation may be familiar to many men: while taking a shower one day, you happen to notice some white spots on your foreskin. You do a double take as you lean down to inspect your manhood. What could it be? How long have they been there? The questions are aplenty as you instinctively reach for your smartphone to begin a Google search.

There are many conditions that can cause white spots to develop on the penis and foreskin. Some men may be born with them, while others may develop them as a result of poor hygiene practices or sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is important to know what the white spots are due to, as not all conditions require treatment. Listed below are some common causes of white spots on the foreskin and penis.


Pearly Penile Papules

Pearly penile papules (PPP) are small, dome-shaped or projection-like bumps that are located just below the head of the penis, usually arranged in a neat row. They can be white, flesh-coloured, yellow or translucent in colour. They do not cause any pain or itch. PPP is considered as a normal variant of the male penile anatomy, and are harmless bumps. It is not cancerous and there is no cancer risk. It is not a sexually transmitted infection and is not contagious. It is common and can occur in up to 38% of young men up to age 25.

PPP can be left alone and does not require treatment. However, for men who find them unsightly, they can be removed. Treatment options include laser therapy, cryotherapy and electrosurgery. 

READ: What are Pearly Penile Papules?


Fordyce Spots

Also known as Fordyce glands, these are harmless, small white or yellow bumps that are found on the foreskin. They are basically enlarged sebaceous glands, and can occur alone or in clusters. They do not cause any pain or itch. Fordyce spots can also commonly occur on the edges of your lips or on the inside of your cheeks.

Just like PPP, Fordyce spots are not cancerous and infectious, and also does not require treatment. Similarly, they can be removed if men find them unsightly. Treatment options include topical retinoid cream, oral isotretinoin, laser therapy and electrosurgery. 


Tyson’s Glands

Also known as preputial glands, Tyson’s glands are modified sebaceous glands that are found on the inner surface of the foreskin. They occur in pairs and are located on either side of the frenulum. These glands are also present on the hood of the clitoris in females. Tyson’s glands are normal structures and do not require treatment.  


Skin Tags

Skin tags are small, soft, flesh-coloured growths on the skin. They usually have a stalk and hang off the skin, and can vary in size from a few millimetres up to several centimetres. They tend not to grow on the penis itself, but rather, around the groin and scrotum. They often grow in areas where the skin folds and rubs against itself, and as such they are often also found on the neck, armpits, eyelids and under the breast. They affect men and women equally. Obesity, diabetes and pregnancy can increase the chances of occurrence.

Skin tags are benign tumours of the skin and do not require treatment. Occasionally, they may fall off on their own. People often wish to get them removed for aesthetic reasons, or if the skin tags are large and get in the way. Treatment options include cryosurgery, electrosurgery, ligation and excision.  

READ: Skin


Balanitis

Balanitis is inflammation of the foreskin and head of the penis. Spots can appear on the penile head or foreskin, and can be white or reddish. Other symptoms include redness, pain, itching, discharge, swelling and difficulty with retraction of the foreskin, and sometimes pain when passing urine. 

Balanitis can affect as many as 1 in 10 males, and can occur at any age. It is more likely to occur in uncircumcised men. The most common cause of Balanitis is a bacteria or fungal infection, or a combination of both. This can result from inadequate personal hygiene and/or phimosis (tight foreskin). There are non-infectious causes for balanitis as well. Risk factors for recurrent balanitis include diabetes, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. 

To investigate balanitis, your doctor may perform swab tests to identify the responsible organism. Treatment involves topical and/or oral anti-fungal and antibiotics. The long term solution to balanitis is a circumcision.

READ: Causes, symptoms and treatment of Balanitis.

Pimples

Pimples develop as a result of the pores of our skin being blocked by dead skin cells, sebum and other debris. The sebaceous gland continues to produce sebum and build up under the blockage, allowing bacteria to grow in the area, resulting in inflammation, infection and pain. They can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis.

Pimples can be left alone and usually resolve on their own without treatment. It is important to resist the urge to pop the pimples as this may lead to superimposed infection, scarring and hyperpigmentation. However, they may end up self erupting and discharge small amounts of pus. Treatments for pimples include topical over-the-counter creams such as benzoyl peroxide, antibiotic creams and, if more severe, oral antibiotics.

READ: Skin


Folliculitis

Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles. It can occur anywhere on the body, including the penis, where it is frequently seen at the shaft or base of the penis, or the pubic area. Folliculitis tends to result from shaving, waxing or chafing of the hair follicles. The damage to the hair follicles allows bacteria to enter. Sometimes, ingrown hairs can also occur from hair removal treatments, eventually leading to folliculitis as well. Folliculitis can be painful and/or itchy. Treatment options include topical and/or oral antibiotics. 

READ: Common causes of penile itching and pubic itching


Genital Warts

Genital warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection and can be spread via vaginal, oral or anal sex. They appear as flesh-coloured growths over the genitals that can cluster and resemble a cauliflower. Most of the time they do not have any symptoms but can sometimes itch. Bleeding can also occur during sexual intercourse. 

READ: Causes, symptoms and treatment for Genital Warts
READ: How to get rid of Genital Warts

Left alone, the warts can remain the same or increase in size and number. They will disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of 1 to 2 years. Treatment options include topical medications such as imiquimod, cryotherapy and electrosurgery. Vaccines are available to help prevent HPV infection, consider getting a HPV vaccination. 

READ: HPV Vaccination For Men
READ: Rapid HPV Testing

Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and is a sexually transmitted infection. Itching of the penis is usually the first symptom, and can occur in other areas such as the scrotum, groin, buttocks and anus. Shortly after, tiny clusters of painful blisters develop, which can then rupture and form shallow ulcers with crusts. Other symptoms include painful urination, enlarged groin lymph nodes, fever and body aches. The virus can lie dormant in the body for years without causing any symptoms, therefore some people may not even be aware that they are infected. 

Genital herpes can be diagnosed via swab testing of the lesions. When there are no symptoms, no treatment is required. Flares can be treated with oral and topical antiviral medications. There is unfortunately no cure for genital herpes, as the virus will permanently remain in the body.

READ: Rapid Herpes Testing

Molluscum Contagiosum

This is a benign infection of the skin caused by the Molluscum Contagiosum virus, resulting in painless, small, shiny pearl-shaped lesions. They can happen anywhere on the body as a result of physical contact, but when they occur on the genital area, it is usually as a result of sexual contact. The virus is thus spread via sexual contact, or even to another part of the person’s own body, from scratching the lesions and touching another part of the body. They can appear alone, or in clusters. They usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes itch. 

Left alone, the lesions will eventually disappear once the body has shed the virus completely, typically over a course of several months to a year. Treatment options include topical medications such as salicylic acid, cryotherapy, laser therapy and curettage.

READ: Everything you need to know about Molluscum Contagiosum

In conclusion, do not panic if you notice white spots on your penis, as not all white spots require treatment.  Speak to your doctor for advice on white spots or bumps and request for an examination. 

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Common Causes of Penile Itching and Pubic Itching

A myriad of conditions can cause a man to have penile itching or pubic itching. The excruciating urge to scratch and relieve that itch at such an inconvenient part of the body can be a major source of embarrassment to some. When severe, it can result in extreme discomfort in the day, and disrupt one’s sleep at night.

 

Here are some of the causes of Penile Itching and Pubic Itching:

 

6 Common Causes of Penile Itch:

 

1. Balanitis

Balanitis is a common infection of the foreskin and head of the penis. It is caused by bacteria or fungus, or a combination of both.

Symptoms include redness, swelling, discomfort, penile itching, and sometimes pain when passing urine.
(See: Penile Infection, Infection of the Penis)

When fungal infection (candidiasis) is present, a whitish cottage cheese-like discharge can be found under the foreskin. Balanitis is often hygiene related, but can also be caused by STDs. It is more likely to occur in uncircumcised males.  Watch: What are the causes of Foreskin Infection (Balanitis)

2. Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). Itching of the penis (penile itching) is usually the first symptom and can occur in other areas such as the scrotum, groin, buttocks and anus.

Shortly after, tiny clusters of fluid-filled blisters or ulcers can develop and these are usually painful. Other symptoms include painful urination, enlarged groin lymph nodes, fever and body aches. The virus can lie dormant in the body for years without causing any symptoms, therefore some people may not even be aware that they are infected.

Read: Genital Blister, Genital Ulcers & Genital Warts & Causes of Oral Herpes (Cold Sore)

 

3. Genital Warts

Genital warts are caused by the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease. They appear as flesh-coloured growths that can cluster and resemble a cauliflower. Most of the time they do not have any symptoms but can sometimes itch. Bleeding can also occur during sexual intercourse.

Read: Genital Warts Treatment

 

4. Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction to contact with an irritant. This can happen anywhere on the body, including the penis. When this happens, it is usually caused by latex condom usage. The skin of the penis can turn red and itchy.

Sometimes the skin can break causing serious discharge, and bacterial infection can occur. Mild cases can be treated with a corticosteroid cream. Non-latex condoms can be used if you have a latex allergy.

 

5. Urethritis

One of the causes of penile itching is Urethritis. Urethritis refers to inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder to outside the body. This condition most often causes pain or itching in the penis, which worsens when passing urine.

Other symptoms include urethral discharge, urinary frequency or urgency, difficulty urinating, and blood in the semen. Urethritis is most commonly caused by a bacterial infection and can be sexually transmitted. See other STD Symptoms 

 

6. Psoriasis

Psoriasis on elbows.

Genital psoriasis often occurs alongside psoriasis of the skin. Skin cells develop at an extremely fast rate, resulting in the accumulation of skin cells on the skin surface, building up into itchy, red plaques of scaly skin. See Psoriasis Treatment

5 Common Causes of Pubic Itch

 

1. Jock Itch

Also known as tinea cruris, jock itch is a fungal infection of the skin in the genital area, groin and buttocks. The rash is usually itchy, red, scaly and ring-shaped. It tends to occur in people who sweat a lot and/or are overweight.

 

2. Pubic Lice

More commonly known as crabs, these are tiny parasitic insects that attach to the hair and skin in the pubic region. Pubic lice can be easily spread via sexual contact or other forms of close contact, and can spread to other body areas with coarse hair such as beards, armpits and chest hair. It is also possible for pubic lice to spread by using an infected person’s clothes, towels, or bed.

 

3. Folliculitis

This is a condition in which hair follicles become inflamed and is usually caused by bacterial or fungal infection, or inflammation from ingrown hair. Initially, the affected hair follicles may have small red bumps or white-headed pimples, but can swell and become painful and subsequently develop into crusty sores.

 

4. Contact Dermatitis

As mentioned earlier, this condition can also occur in the pubic area.

 

5. Molluscum Contagiosum (mo-LUS-kum kun-tay-jee-OH-sum)

Molluscum Contagiousum is a benign viral infection of the skin and is caused by the molluscum contagiosum virus, resulting in painless, small, shiny pearl-shaped lesions. They can happen anywhere on the body as a result of contact, but when they occur in the genital area, it is usually as a result of sexual contact. They can appear alone or in clusters. They usually do not cause any symptoms, but can sometimes itch.

If you need to speak to our doctors, please visit our men’s clinics.  Alternatively, you can email us hello@dtapclinic.com or call us for an appointment.
Take Care.


Other Read:

 

What are the Cause of Foreskin Infection (Balanitis)?

What is Balanitis?

Balanitis is a common infection that affects the head of the penis and the foreskin.
It is more commonly seen in boys and men who are not circumcised.

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Balanitis?

The Common Symptoms of the infection of the Penis include a sore, itchy and smelly penis, redness and swelling, the build-up of thick fluid around your penis, and pain when peeing.

Phimosis can increase the risk of balanitis.
Some adults may also have a tight foreskin that is unable to be fully retracted. This is called phimosis and can increase the risk of balanitis.

What are the Causes of Balanitis?

Balanitis can be caused by poor hygiene.
This can lead to a build-up of Smegma is a buildup of dead skin cells, oil, and other fluids on the tip of the penis.
If left for prolonged periods it can lead to fungal and bacterial infections.

What are the Treatments of Balanitis?

You should see your doctor if you have persistent swelling, redness or irritation or if you have other accompanying symptoms like penile discharge or painful urination.
In most cases of balanitis are easily treated with good hygiene and creams and ointments recommended by your doctors.
Also, circumcision may be advised in recurrent cases of balanitis.
You can have sex during treatment if your balanitis isn’t caused by an infection.
But if it’s caused by an infection, like an STI or thrush, there’s a risk of passing this on.
Do consult any of our doctors if you are ever unsure of your symptoms so that we can do a proper examination and also to perform any lab tests if necessary.

If you wish to know more about Balanitis, please visit our Men’s clinics or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  3. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  4. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  5. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  6. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  7. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  8. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  9. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know