Hipogonadisme – Penyebab, Gejala & Pengobatan

Apakah semua pria mengalami gejala Hipogonadisme (Andropause atau Menopause Pria) atau apakah beberapa pria bahkan tidak menyadari bahwa mereka sedang mengalaminya? Hipogonadisme pria adalah suatu kondisi di mana tubuh tidak menghasilkan cukup testosteron.

English: What are the Causes, Symptoms & Treatment of Hypogonadism 

Doktor yang boleh berbahasa melayu


Hipogonadisme pria Vs. Andropause (Menopause Pria)

Secara teknis, istilah andropause (Menopause Pria) tidak ada dalam bidang medis. Ini karena tidak seperti penurunan besar kadar estrogen pada wanita yang mengalami menopause, tidak ada penurunan tingkat testosteron pada pria sehingga tidak ada “pause”. Lebih tepatnya, itu harus diistilahkan sebagai defisiensi androgen atau sindrom defisiensi testosteron atau hipogonadisme pria.


Mengapa Testosteron Penting?

Testosteron penting sepanjang kehidupan pria mana pun.
Ini menentukan perkembangan karakteristik seksual pria selama perkembangan janin. Tanpa testosteron pada saat yang tepat dari perkembangan janin, genitalia pria eksternal tidak akan membesar.
Selama masa pubertas, pria perlu mengembangkan karakteristik seksual sekunder seperti rambut wajah, rambut kemaluan, pembesaran penis dan testis hingga ukuran dewasa.
Dalam kasus di mana terdapat infeksi pada testis, atau trauma atau cedera pada testis atau testis yang tidak turun sebelum masa pubertas, maka pria tidak mengembangkan karakteristik seksual sekunder tersebut.
Ia diperlukan untuk produksi sperma oleh testis. Testosteron juga diperlukan untuk menjaga kesehatan tulang secara langsung dan tidak langsung karena beberapa testosteron dikonversi menjadi estrogen yang juga membantu menjaga kesehatan tulang.
Ini juga membantu dalam mempertahankan massa otot yang secara tidak langsung meningkatkan kadar lemak tubuh.
Testosteron juga dapat memengaruhi mood dan dorongan seksual pada pria dan juga dapat memengaruhi ereksi.
Ada juga semakin banyak bukti yang menunjukkan bahwa testosteron adalah faktor yang perlu dipertimbangkan untuk kesehatan jantung. Sejumlah penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa pria yang memiliki penyakit arteri koroner memiliki kadar testosteron yang lebih rendah.
Tingkat testosteron yang rendah juga dikaitkan dengan peningkatan risiko kanker prostat tingkat tinggi.


Apa Gejala Utama Testosteron Rendah?

Gejala umum dari testosteron rendah adalah:

  1. Tingkat Energi Rendah
  2. Perubahan Suasana Hati atau Iritabilitas
  3. Konsentrasi yang buruk
  4. Mengurangi Kekuatan Otot
  5. Libido rendah
  6. Masalah Ereksi (kesulitan ereksi atau mempertahankan ereksi)

Questionaire tentang Kekurangan Testosteron

Anda juga dapat menggunakan kuesioner di bawah ini sebagai alat untuk menilai kemungkinan kekurangan testosteron

  1. Apakah Anda mengalami penurunan libido (dorongan seksual)?
  2. Apakah Anda kekurangan energi?
  3. Apakah Anda memiliki penurunan kekuatan dan / atau daya tahan?
  4. Apakah Anda kehilangan ketinggian?
  5. Pernahkah Anda memperhatikan ‘kenikmatan hidup’ yang menurun?
  6. Apakah Anda sedih dan / atau pemarah?
  7. Apakah ereksi Anda kurang kuat?
  8. Sudahkah Anda mencatat kemunduran kemampuan bermain olahraga baru-baru ini?
  9. Apakah Anda tertidur setelah makan malam?
  10. Apakah ada penurunan kinerja kerja Anda saat ini?

Jika Anda menjawab ya untuk Pertanyaan 1 atau 7 dan 3 pertanyaan lainnya, maka Anda mungkin ingin menemui dokter Anda untuk mendiskusikan kekurangan testosteron.


Apakah Testosteron Rendah Berbahaya Dengan Cara Apa Pun?

(Haruskah pria khawatir tentang penurunan kadar testosteron?)
Ada semakin banyak bukti yang menunjukkan hubungan antara kadar testosteron rendah dan risiko kardiovaskular dan juga kematian (kematian). Masih perlu dijelaskan lebih lanjut, apakah testosteron rendah menyebabkan peningkatan risiko kardiovaskular / kematian atau sebaliknya.
Seperti disebutkan sebelumnya, ada beberapa penelitian yang menunjukkan bahwa ada risiko kanker prostat tingkat tinggi pada pria dengan kadar testosteron rendah. Selain itu, kadar testosteron yang rendah dikaitkan dengan diabetes, obesitas, dan kadar kolesterol tinggi. Ditemukan rata-rata pria sangat gemuk memiliki kadar testosteron 25% lebih rendah daripada pria tidak gemuk.


Apa Pilihan Perawatan untuk Testosteron Rendah?

Jika testosteron Anda rendah tetapi tanpa gejala, konsensus umum adalah untuk tidak diobati. Namun, ada cara non-farmasi untuk meningkatkan kadar testosteron Anda.

  1. Latihan ketahanan atau Resistance training

Latihan ketahanan – ada sejumlah kajian yang menunjukkan bahwa resistance training  bisa meningkatkan kadar testosteron walaupun hanya sementara.

  1. High intensity Interval Training (HIIT)

Pelatihan Interval Intensitas Tinggi (HIIT) juga dapat meningkatkan kadar testosteron hingga 17% dalam kajian setelah 6 bulan latihan.

  1. Mengurangi Lemak Tubuh

Mengurangi kadar lemak tubuh melalui diet dan olahraga yang tepat dapat meningkatkan kadar testosteron juga.


Tanya Jawab tentang Hipogonadisme:

 

1. Apa Perbedaan Antara Hipogonadisme dan Testosteron Rendah?

Anda dapat memiliki kadar testosteron yang rendah tetapi selagi anda tidak memiliki gejala yang disebabkan oleh testosteron, anda tidak memiliki sindrom kekurangan testosteron atau kekurangan androgen.

 

2. Apakah Hipogonadisme biasa?

Satu dari 10 pria yang lebih tua mungkin memiliki sindrom kekurangan testosteron.

 

3. Bagaimana Hypogonadism Diobati?

Ada berbagai cara untuk menggantikan Testosterone yang tersedia di Singapura.

4. Injeksi testosteron:
Ini adalah pilihan bagi mereka yang tidak ingin minum obat setiap hari. Umumnya, suntikan ini diberikan setiap 8-12 minggu tergantung pada keperluan individu. Ada juga suntikan jangka pendek tetapi orang itu harus  nyaman dengan suntikan diri

5. Kapsul Testosteron:
Ini adalah pilihan bagi mereka yang tidak suka jarum dan lebih suka minum obatnya. Penyerapan tergantung pada diet (lebih baik dengan makanan berlemak tinggi).

6. Gel testosteron:
Cara ini memberikan tingkat penyerapan terbaik dan paling stabil dibandingkan dengan 2 pilihan yang sebelumnya. Ini juga merupakan pilihan termudah bagi kebanyakan orang karena hanya perlu mengoleskan gel pada kulit.
Namun, beberapa orang merasa tidak nyaman untuk menggunakannya karena perlu menunggu gel kering .
Ia juga ada risiko transfer testosteron secara tidak sengaja ke pasangan wanita atau anak-anak jika tersentuh.


Jika anda perlu berbicara dengan dokter mengenai Hipogonadisme (Andropause), silakan kunjungi klinik pria kami.
Atau, anda dapat mengirim email kepada kami hello@dtapclinic.com.sg atau hubungi kami untuk membuat janji. Bicaralah dengan dokter Anda hari ini!


6 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration

Most men tend to not pay regular attention to their general skin condition, but when it comes to matters of the penis, it is almost always a cause for immediate concern; after all, it is the source of our manhood. More often than not, any unusual appearance such as discolouration, dry skin, red spots or bumps may result in considerable anxiety.

It is not uncommon for men, especially those with darker skin, to have slight variations in the colour of the penis. In fact, for men of all races, it is normal for the penis to be slightly darker than the skin on the rest of the body. This applies also to the labia of women.

When an adolescent male or female undergoes puberty, the body produces the sex hormones, testosterone and oestrogen, which results in the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Excess levels of these hormones in the genitals respond to melanocytes, the skin cells that cause pigmentation. These physiological changes are responsible for darker genitalia in both men and women.

Mild penile discolouration is generally nothing to worry about. In fact, during sexual arousal, the penis can take on a reddish, sometimes almost purplish colour, due to increased blood flow to the organ. However, there are other causes of penile discolouration that may be more severe and require treatment.

 

6 Common Causes of Penile Discolouration

1. Contact Dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is a skin reaction to contact with an irritant. This can happen anywhere on the body, including the penis. When this happens, it is usually caused by latex condom usage. The skin of the penis can turn red and itchy. Sometimes the skin can break causing serous discharge, and bacterial infection can occur. Mild cases can be treated with a corticosteroid cream. Non-latex condoms can be used if you have a latex allergy.

 

2. Penile Injury

A penile injury can lead to rapid discolouration due to bruising, in the form of purple, dark brown or even greenish hues. Sometimes, a red patch with prominent blood vessels just under the surface of the skin can occur due to a hematoma. This usually fades after several days and treatment is typically not necessary.

However, if there is severe pain along with the discolouration after a traumatic episode, immediate medical attention is required as this could be due to a penile fracture, which is a more severe issue.

 

3. Lichen Sclerosus

Lichen sclerosus is a lifelong condition that can go through periods of remission and flare-ups, and is characterised by white patches on the penis. It is more common in those who are uncircumcised. In addition to blotchy white spots, the skin of the penis can also become itchy, fragile and tear or bleed easily. Other symptoms include painful sex and an inability to retract the foreskin fully.

The cause of lichen sclerosus is unknown, but an overactive immune system or an imbalance of hormones may play a role. It is not contagious and cannot be transmitted through sexual intercourse. Treatment usually includes a strong steroid ointment applied directly to the affected skin. If only the foreskin is affected, circumcision may be advised.

 

4. Penile Melanosis or Post Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)

Penile melanosis, or PIH, is a benign condition simply caused by overproduction of melanin, in which the skin can appear in a wide variety of colors including different shades of brown, grey or even blue.

Overproduction usually occurs after an injury to the skin of the penis, the most common being excessive rubbing of the penis from vigorous sex or self-pleasuring. It will fade over time, or if a man is bothered by it, possible treatments such as topical retinol (vitamin A) every night before bed, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion can help to reduce the discolouration.

 

5. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Purple sores on the penis can occur as a result of genital herpes or syphilis. These STDs can be accompanied by other symptoms such as pain, fever, itchiness, burning, and fatigue. If STD is suspected, it is imperative to head to a clinic to see a physician as soon as possible to be tested and get treated.

Also Read

 

6. Penile Cancer

Penile cancer tends to start on the skin of the penis and spreads towards the deeper tissues. 95% are squamous cell carcinomas, while penile melanoma accounts for 0.7%. Penile cancer is rare and the cause is not entirely known, but risk factors include smoking, HIV and high risk strains of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms include changes in the colour and thickness of the skin of the penis, foul smelling discharge under the foreskin, and abnormal non-resolving growths or ulceration of the penis. A diagnosis of penile cancer requires an urgent biopsy.

 

There are other conditions that can cause penile discolouration. It is important to determine the exact cause as treatment varies according to the cause. It is always best to visit a doctor for a physical examination and proper evaluation.

If you need to speak to our doctors , please visit our DTAP Clinics.  Alternatively, you can email us hello@dtapclinic.com.sg or call us for an appointment.

 

Take Care.

 

Other Read:

Also on Dtapclinic.com: HIV Test SingaporeSTD Test SingaporeAnonymous HIV Testing

Apa itu Sunat?

Sunat pada dewasa adalah memotong kulit yang berlebihan dari penis.


Kapan sunat direkomendasikan?

Sunat telah dilakukan selama ribuan tahun di banyak komunitas di seluruh dunia. Secara medis, sunatjuga merupakan bentuk pengobatan yang direkomendasikan untuk kondisi seperti fimosis (kulup ketat), infeksi berulang pada penis, dan ejakulasi dini.

Apa manfaatnya?

Sunat sudahdilakukan ribuan tahun. Banyak agama bahkan mengharuskan anak laki-laki mereka disunat. Ada banyak sebab mengapa ini sangat dianjurkan dan bahkan wajib bagi sebagian orang.

Manfaatnya seperti berikut:

  • Pencegahan infeksi pada penis
  • Kebersihan yang lebih baik
  • Mengurangi risiko HIV dan infeksi penyakit melunar seksuallainnya
  • Mengurangirisiko infeksi saluran kencing
  • Mencegah fimosis(ketidakmampuan untuk menarik kembali kulup) dan parafimosis(kulup ditarik kembali dan tidak dapat kembali ke posisi semula)

Bagaimana cara kerjanya?

Ada beberapa metode yang biasanya dilakukan untuk orang dewasa.

Di klinik kami, kami melakukan metode cincin Shang (Shang Ring).

Deng ananestesi lokal, Shang Ring akan dimasukkan ke dalam kulup. Kemudian, akan dijepit dari bagian luar dengan penjepit. Kelebihan kulit penis (kulup) di bagian atas cincin akan dilepaskan dengan menggunakan gunting bedah.

Cincin akan tetap pada posisinya, kemudian akan lepas dengan sendirinya setelah 3-4 minggu.

Bisakah saya buang air kecil secara normal?

Anda bisa buang air kecil secara normal. Anda juga bisamandi seperti biasa.

Apa ini berbahaya?

Seperti prosedur bedah lainnya, sunat juga memiliki risiko sendiri.

Risiko potensial termasuk perdarahan, nyeri pada penis, luka dan bengkak/ lebam. Namun, risiko ini amat rendah sekali.

Masih bisakah saya melakukan aktivitas normal?

Setelah selesai prosedur, anda bisa berjalan dengan normal. Tidak perlu dirawat inapdi rumah sakit. Namun anda disarankan untuk mulai berolahraga 4-6 minggu setelah prosedur.

Hubungan seksual dan masturbasi hanya dapat dilanjutkan 4-6 minggu setelah prosedur.

Berapa harganya?

Biaya tindakan untuk prosedur sunat adalah SGD 1800.00 sudah termasuk kunjungan follow-up, namun belum termasuk obat.

Untuk informasi lebih lanjut silakan email kami di hello@dtapclinic.com.sg

What is Chronic Prostatitis Symptom & Treatment?

What is Prostatitis?

Prostatitis refers to a group of conditions that usually cause inflammation of the prostate gland or surrounding structures in men, which results in pain or discomfort around the pelvis and a variety of urinary symptoms.
It can be classified into several categories which include:

  1. Acute Prostatitis,
  2. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis,
  3. Chronic non-bacterial prostatitis, and
  4. Asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis.

Prostatitis is very common, with up to 2-10% of men affected at any time. The majority of these cases will fall under chronic non-bacterial prostatitis, also known now as chronic pelvic pain syndrome – these account for about 95% of prostatitis diagnoses.
Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) is due to inflammation of the prostate or inflammation in the organs and tissues in the pelvic region.

What are some of the Symptoms of Chronic Prostatitis?

Men with chronic pelvic pain syndrome can present with a number of symptoms, including pain at the perineum, testicles, penis, and lower back, pain while passing urine or after ejaculation, and urinary frequency or urgency.
They may also lead to erectile dysfunction or premature ejaculation.
These symptoms can wax and wane, lasting for weeks to months. Many men can suffer for months at a time with these symptoms without getting the correct diagnosis or treatment.
The exact causes of chronic pelvic pain syndrome are not well known, but it may be triggered by combinations of stress, anxiety, hypersensitive nerves, increased muscle tension, previous infection, or even changes in diet or climate.

What are the Treatments for Chronic Prostatitis?

Treatment options for chronic prostatitis can vary depending on the underlying cause but may include a combination of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and neuromodulators. There is also evidence that some patients can respond well to Electroshockwave Therapy or ESWT for Prostate Inflammation.
If you need to speak to a doctor in regards to Chronic Prostatitis, please visit our clinics. Alternatively, you can email us hello@dtapclinic.com.sg or call us for an appointment.
Take care.


Also Read,

  1. Erectile Dysfunction Treatment in Singapore
  2. Premature Ejaculation Treatment
  3. What is Prostatitis (Inflammation of the Prostate Gland)
  4. Andrology (Men’s Health Clinic) in Singapore
  5. Are All ESWT Machines for Erectile Dysfunction Treatment the Same
  6. What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Enlarged Prostate)
  7. What You Need to Know about Prostate Massage
  8. Weak Erection? – How to Treat Erectile Dysfunction without Pills
  9. 7 Ways Last Longer in Bed – Premature Ejaculation

8 Common Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

What do golf superstar Tiger Woods, basketball legend Kobe Bryant and Hollywood actor Patrick Stewart all have in common? They are famous examples of people who live with  Osteoarthritis (OA). Also known as degenerative or “wear and tear” arthritis, OA is the most common form of arthritis. Learn more about Knee Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis most often occurs in the knee joint. In Singapore, a National Health Surveillance Survey (NHSS) conducted in 2013 found that the estimated national prevalence of knee OA was 11%. Women were more likely to be affected than men. Knee OA was more prevalent among Indian ethnicity (20.5%), followed by Malay (17.7%), and Chinese (9.3%).
Unsurprisingly, knee osteoarthritis is more likely to occur with increasing age. In recent years, however, the prevalence of Knee Osteoarthritis in younger people between the ages of 18-50 years old has been steadily rising. This trend is the result of a rising interest in sports and consequently, knee injuries.
With the knowledge that knee osteoarthritis is so common, it is therefore important to recognise the 8 Common Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis.

8 Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis

1. Pain

This is the most common symptom and is typically worse on waking up in the morning or after an extended period of inactivity. In severe cases, the pain can be excruciating and result in disability.

2. Stiffness

Again, stiffness is worse in the morning or after a period of inactivity. The stiffness usually reduces after a short period of walking about.

3. Swelling

This tends to occur at the end of a long day and particularly if a lot of standing or walking was involved.

4. A “Grating” or “Crunching” Sensation

A person with knee osteoarthritis can either hear this or feel it when placing a hand on the knee cap while bending or straightening the knee. This occurs due to degenerated meniscus and cartilage, loss of synovial fluid and the presence of bone spurs.

5. Decreased Range of Motion

This occurs in the late stages of knee osteoarthritis. Some people are not even able to fully straighten their knees at all.

6. Locking or “Jamming” of the joint

This happens when the meniscus is degenerated or torn and flaps about during joint movement. Another reason is due to fragments of bone or soft tissue floating within the joint space.

7. Joint Instability

In the late stages of knee OA, the soft tissues of the joint are severely damaged. This includes ligaments, which play a crucial role in maintaining joint stability.

8. Joint Deformity

This also occurs in the late stages of Knee Osteoarthritis. Severe soft tissue damage and joint space narrowing affect the alignment of the knee joint. The knees start to appear bowed and deformed.
If you or any of your loved ones are experiencing these symptoms, speak to your doctor to learn about the available Knee Osteoarthritis treatment options.

We also provides a range of joint pain diagnosis & treatment. You can call us at +65 6962 2144 or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com.sg for an appointment with our doctor.

Take care!


Also Read:

  1. 7 Common Causes for Knee Pain
  2. Are All Shock Wave Machines For Erectile Dysfunction The Same?
  3. Office Syndrome – Causes, Treatment & Accossiated Symtopms 
  4. Tennis Elbow & Golfer’s Elbow – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  5. Trigger Finger – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  6. Shoulder Pain – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  7. Plantar Fasciitis – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  8. Knee Pain – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment
  9. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Causes, Symptoms & treatment

7 Common Causes for Knee Pain

Knee pain affects people of all ages and affects sedentary individuals just as much as active athletes. The knee is one of our main weight-bearing joints, and also happens to be the joint most prone to injury. More often than not, we tend to take our knees for granted, and it is not until a serious injury occurs that we truly appreciate how important they actually are in our daily lives.

There is a multitude of causes for knee pain. Some are relatively mild conditions that can improve simply with proper rest, while some are serious and require prompt medical treatment or surgery.


7 Common Causes of Knee Pain

(PS: Listed below, not in any particular order)

#1 Knee Osteoarthritis (OA)

Also known as degenerative arthritis or “wear and tear” arthritis, Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is caused by cartilage degeneration and osteophyte formation, leading to joint space reduction and ultimately, bone rubbing against bone. Knee Osteoarthritis tends to occur with increased age, but there are many other risk factors that also predispose one to OA. Other than knee pain, people with OA typically experience joint stiffness, swelling, reduced range of motion and deformity.

#2 Ligament Injury

The ligaments of the knee joint work together to provide stability. Ligaments are strong, tough bands of fibrous tissue, but can be strained or ruptured as a result of excessive physical forces. For example, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may occur as a result of a sudden change in direction or twisting of the knee, most commonly when playing sports such as basketball or football. More than one ligament may be involved, and sometimes meniscal injuries can occur in conjunction with ligament injuries.

#3 Meniscal Injury

The menisci are two thick crescent-shaped pads of cartilage that act as shock absorbers and also reduce friction. They can tear when the knee undergoes a twisting motion while it is bent, usually as a result of playing sports. They can also be worn out with increasing age, overuse and obesity. Other concurrent symptoms include locking or “jamming”, difficulty straightening the knee, and swelling.

#4 Patella Dislocation

A twisting injury or direct blow to the knee can cause the kneecap to slip completely out of place, leading to intense pain on movement. This is known as patella dislocation. When the kneecap slips partially out of place, it is called a subluxation. There are other factors that increase the risk of patella dislocation, such as hyperflexible joints and weak quadriceps muscles.

This condition occurs more frequently in athletic teenagers. The initial treatment requires prompt relocation of the patella by a trained medical professional, followed by rehabilitation. Without physiotherapy, the chance of recurrence is 50% and eventually, surgery may be required.

#5 Gout

Gout is caused by excessive buildup of uric acid crystals in the affected joint. Repeated attacks to the same joint over time eventually leads to joint erosion and arthritis. Gout tends to occur in only large joints, and usually, only one joint is affected at any one time.

Symptoms can come on acutely, and patients typically suffer from intense pain and swelling of the joint. Gout is usually diagnosed clinically. If there is any doubt, the gold standard test performed is knee joint aspiration, whereby the presence of uric acid crystals confirms the diagnosis.

#6 Fracture

Knee fracture can occur as a result of trauma (eg. road traffic accident) or falls. People who have fragile bones due to osteoporosis may sustain a knee fracture by simply tripping or stepping wrong. The pain may be excruciating but sometimes can simply present as a nagging ache. Depending on the type of fracture and the location within the knee joint, treatment may be conservative with cast immobilization, or surgery.

#7 Patellar Tendonitis

Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper’s knee, refers to inflammation in the patellar tendon located just below the kneecap. It is more common in people who participate in sports that require frequent jumping, such as basketball and volleyball. However, it can occur in non-athletes as well. The pain is felt at the location of the patella tendon in the front of the knee.

The above are some of the common causes of Knee Pain. If you wish to speak to our doctors about Knee Pain issues, please drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com.sg or you can call us at +65 6962 2144.

Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. What is Office Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  2. What are the signs & symptoms of Nose Cancer
  3. Mycoplasma Genitalium (MG) – STD Screening, Testing & Treatment
  4. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Or Prostatitis
  5. 5 Ways to Fight Depression
  6. 8 Ways on How to Cope with Anxiety 
  7. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Causes, Symptoms Treatment 
  8. Plantar Fasciitis – Causes Symptom Treatment
  9. Shoulder Pain – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment 
  10. Trigger Finger – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment
  11. Tennis Elbow & Golfer’s Elbow – What You Need to Know 
  12. STD Symptoms in Women

Office Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms Treatments

What is Office Syndrome?

If you live in a big city and work in an office environment, chances are you may suffer from Office Syndrome even though you may not know it.
Office Syndrome is not a disease but instead refers to a group of symptoms related to the unhealthy sitting posture. The typical office worker spends hours upon hours sitting in the same position, toiling away in front of computer screens.
At first glance, one may not think much about such a lifestyle, but if left unaddressed, Office Syndrome can potentially lead to serious issues, especially for one’s muscles and spine.

What is the Cause of Office Syndrome

A poor working environment is a major cause of Office Syndrome. Inadequate table height and positioning of the computer and keyboard leads to an unnatural sitting position. Slouching or hunching over with rounded shoulders causes constant muscle contraction, gradually resulting in weak core muscles and increased tension in other muscle groups.
Dry eyes and headache can also result from long hours facing computer screens. Psychological symptoms such as depression, insomnia and fatigue may occur as well. All these also fall under the spectrum of Office Syndrome.

via GIPHY

What are the Symptoms?

What are the Treatments?

If you suspect that you are having symptoms related to Office Syndrome, speak to your doctor about it. Based on the symptoms as described above, investigations such as X-ray, ultrasound scan or blood tests may be recommended.
The treatment essentially depends on the symptoms and body part that is of concern, and commonly involves medications, physiotherapy and alternative therapies such as acupuncture.
However, as the saying goes, “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”, it is much easier to take measures to prevent Office Syndrome rather than have to deal with the problems when they develop.

Office work does not equal Office Syndrome!

How to Avoid Office Syndrome!

Not everyone who works in an office is destined to develop Office Syndrome. All that is required are some adjustments to the workplace and the development of good habits, and Office Syndrome can be easily avoided.

1) Practice proper posture.

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Practice proper posture. Sit up straight with your shoulders rolled back and your chin tucked to elongate your spine. Good posture is always important, even when not at work.

2) Adjust your sitting position regularly.

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Doing so every 1-2 hours helps to prevent muscle fatigue and subsequent slouching. You can also change the angle of your seat, and avoid sitting at the edge of your seat.

3) Try to exercise

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Try to exercise for 30 minutes or more, at least three times a week. Focus on exercises that can strengthen your core muscle groups, which in turn can help with your posture.

4) Desk ergonomics.

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Desk ergonomics. The computer mouse and keyboard should be directly in front of you, at a comfortable distance, with your arms properly supported. The computer screen should be an arm’s length away from you, and level with or slightly below your line of sight. Standing work desks are great, and nowadays there are even adjustable desks for both sitting and standing.

5) Take a break.

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Remember to take a break. Take short breaks throughout the day to rest your eyes. This is also a good time to stretch or take a walking break.
Take care!


Other Reads:

  1. What is Office Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  2. What are the signs & symptoms of Nose Cancer
  3. Mycoplasma Genitalium (MG) – STD Screening, Testing & Treatment
  4. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Or Prostatitis
  5. 5 Ways to Fight Depression
  6. 8 Ways on How to Cope with Anxiety 
  7. 7 Common Causes of Knee Pain
  8. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Causes, Symptoms Treatment 
  9. Plantar Fasciitis – Causes Symptom Treatment
  10. Shoulder Pain – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment 
  11. Trigger Finger – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment
  12. Tennis Elbow & Golfer’s Elbow – What You Need to Know 
  13. STD Symptoms in Women

On an unrelated note: rejuran, rejuran healer

8 Ways on How to Cope with Anxiety

1 in 7 people has experienced a mental disorder in their lifetime. The top 3 conditions often faced are Depression, Bipolar Disorder and Anxiety.

In generalized anxiety disorder, feelings of anxiety overwhelm and affect one’s daily functioning and life. Other symptoms experienced by those with anxiety include: feelings of nervousness, feelings of impending doom or danger, heart rate increased, hyperventilating, sweating profusely, trouble concentrating and staying focused. 

Many things can add to one’s anxiety, the stress of life, work, relationships. Problems at home, marriage, finances. These are all very real daily struggles which can make one anxious.

Here are some top tips you can adapt to build your mental resilience and defeat anxiety!

via GIPHY


8 Ways on How One Can Cope & Manange with Anxiety

1) Exercise Daily

Exercise causes hormones known as endorphins to be released. These “feel good” hormones help relieve pain, activate our reward receptors and overall gives one a happy and positive feeling. 

Exercise has also been shown to improve one’s self-confidence. This, in turn, can lead to more positivity when dealing with a stressful or anxious situation.

 

 

2) Have Enough Sleep

When you don’t get enough sleep, one’s circadian rhythm and sleep cycle can get affected. When this happens, the hormones and chemicals in the body get to go into a state of imbalance. These chemicals imbalance is also what causes the symptoms of anxiety.

It is a vicious cycle because poor sleep triggers anxiety and anxiety triggers poor sleep. It is, therefore, useful to adopt good sleep hygiene or if your sleep is severely affected, to speak to a medical professional for advice.

3) Keep Work at the Workplace

An old saying goes, work hard play hard. However, as we look deeper there is wisdom in this adage because working hard during work time allows one to stay focused and channelled and play hard allows one to forget about the stress at work and fully recharge and recuperate for the next challenge back at work.

But in short, keep work at the workplace 🙂

4) Avoid Caffeine & Alcohol

Caffeine causes one’s heart rate to go up. When your heart beats faster, it can worsen the nervousness that you experience.

 On the other hand, some people have found that alcohol helps with their anxiety, especially in social settings. But the flipside is, when the alcohol wears off, the anxiety may recur. And again it becomes a vicious cycle: taking alcohol again to gain “liquid courage”.This inadvertently becomes a slippery slope of alcohol dependence and is very dangerous. 

 

5) Seek Treatment

There is no shame in seeking help. Not all help revolves around medications. In fact, psychological therapy in the means of counselling helps one deal with anxieties. This coupled with medications to help restore the chemical imbalances in the mind. 

Again, it doesn’t mean that if you start taking medications, you have to start taking it for life. With appropriate support, counselling and help, one can eventually cut down the amount of medication taking and even stop it completely.

6) Talk to Someone

2 heads are better than 1, talking to someone close, friend or family lets you share your burdens and concerns. In that way with this social support, you would not have to bear the stress and anxiety of the situation all by yourself.

 

 

7) Be Active in Your Community

There are many activities you can take part in or even volunteer at your local community. This may be in the form of a soup kitchen, working with seniors at an aged home or even an awareness programme for abandoned animals.

 Sometimes, by helping others who are less fortunate, it takes the spotlight of our own plight and in turn help, one sees that the stress and anxiety response to your situation may not be as what another person is going through.

 

8) Find a Creative Hobby

A new hobby helps you channel your extra energies and time! Instead of worrying about something that may or may not be there, something that you may or may not be able to change. A new hobby can enrich your life and whilst doing this past time, you may learn a new skill or talent as well!

 

In short stay positive, stay resilient!

Take Care.


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  4. New HPV Vaccine (Gardasil 9) – What You Need to Know
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  6. The Causes of Swimmer’s Ear (Outer Ear Infection)
  7. 7 Myths & Facts about Erectile Dysfunction
  8. Nose Cancer & Nose Cancer Screening – What You Need to Know
  9. 7 Testosterone Boosting Foods that You Can Find in Supermarket 
  10. Genital Warts the Cauliflower Like Lumps

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Constipation and When To See a Doctor

An article published in the Daily Star (UK) reported that a woman lost ten years of her memory after straining on the toilet seat because of constipation. While it may seem rather comical that someone can forget themselves after straining, this is a real medical condition. The doctors that saw her suspected that one of the blood vessels connected to her brain was not functioning normally, and at the point of exertion, blood flow to the brain was compromised, leading to memory loss. This is, in essence, a mini-stroke. Fortunately for her, her memory came back. This is not the first case of someone’s brain being affected by straining because of constipation.

So why does this lady have to strain so hard just to defecate?

Bowel Movements and Constipation

Today, we will talk about bowel movements and constipation. Before we talk about what is abnormal, we need to know what is normal.

Everyone’s bowel movements are different and can change as you grow older. But in general, when defining diarrhoea or constipation, the general range is from three times a day to three times a week. Less than three movements per week are generally considered constipation, while three or more loose stools per day are considered diarrhea. As you grow older, your bowel movement slows down as well, and that is the reason why the elderly are more prone to constipation.

Having said that, what may be normal to someone may be abnormal for another person. If a person normally has two bowel movements a day, a sudden decrease to one bowel movement every two days can be considered as constipation for him. On the other hand, someone who has always had one bowel movement every two days might see two bowel movements a day to be considered as diarrhea.

 

Consistency & Frequency

As doctors, we do not just look at the frequency of bowel movements (or the change in frequency), we look at the consistency as well. Are your stools soft and fluffy? Are they in one solid piece? Is it completely liquid?

In Singapore hospitals, we commonly use the Bristol Stool Scale to describe stool, and there are 7 types of stool that can be described. A change in consistency of stool may indicate to your doctor that there might be something wrong.

So What is Constipation Then?

It can mean that you are not passing stools as frequently as you are used to or you are unable to completely empty your bowel. Constipation can also cause your stools to be hard and lumpy, or unusually large or small. It can be painful or uncomfortable to defecate as well.

 

Common Causes of Constipation

There are many things that can cause constipation, and they can range from the benign to the life-threatening. The most common causes of constipation are diet and activity related. Changes to your diet can cause your gut to move slower. A diet that is low in fibre or fluids such as water can make your stools hard and therefore harder to pass.

Stress is a huge contributor to constipation as well. We do see some people get constipated during times of stress. If you are inactive and do not exercise regularly, you can be prone to constipation as well.

Medications that slow your gut such as cough syrups, iron tablets and some painkillers can lead to constipation. Overuse or dependence of laxatives can also slow your gut. Any mass lesion that obstructs the gut can lead to constipation as well and can range from the benign like pregnancy to dangerous like colon or pelvic cancer. Constipation may also be a sign of bowel obstruction. There are some neurological diseases that are associated with constipation, like Multiple Sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease. Certain metabolic conditions such as hypothyroidism can alter the movement of your gut too.

So Why Do We Have to Care?

First and foremost, constipation can be very uncomfortable. Defecation can be painful and if the stools are hard enough, they can cut the insides of your gut, leading to bleeding. People usually complain of a bloated abdomen and may report the feeling of incomplete evacuation of stool. Complications include conditions such as diverticular disease, haemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal impaction and rectal prolapse due to the straining.

Thing You Can Do to Prevent Constipation

So knowing the above, there are some things we can do to try and prevent constipation. Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and high fibre foods that can help bulk up your stool. Stay hydrated with lots of fluids and exercise regularly. Reduce your stress levels.

These will also add benefits to your general health! Avoid constipating medications such as codeine and iron supplements.

 

If the above fails, there are medications that can be given to assist in defecation. They can range from oral medications to suppositories. These can bulk up the stool, draw more water into the gut or stimulate the gut to move. But remember, dependence on these medications can lead to constipation too, so as far as possible, the lifestyle changes recommended above are the first line of treatment.

All in All

As mentioned, constipation may be a sign of something more ominous. If there is significant pain associated with constipation, this might be an acute bowel obstruction.

If there are any red flags like weight loss, per rectal bleeding, a sudden  change in bowel habits, loss of appetite or an abdominal mass, it could possibly be something like cancer and further investigations might need to be done.

See your doctor if you have these warning signs.

Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. What is Office Syndrome – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
  2. What are the signs & symptoms of Nose Cancer
  3. Mycoplasma Genitalium (MG) – STD Screening, Testing & Treatment
  4. Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Or Prostatitis
  5. 5 Ways to Fight Depression
  6. 8 Ways on How to Cope with Anxiety 
  7. 7 Common Causes of Knee Pain
  8. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis – Causes, Symptoms Treatment 
  9. Plantar Fasciitis – Causes Symptom Treatment
  10. Shoulder Pain – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment 
  11. Trigger Finger – Cause, Symptoms & Treatment
  12. Tennis Elbow & Golfer’s Elbow – What You Need to Know 
  13. STD Symptoms in Women

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水货九价HPV疫苗 – 到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受假药?

选择正确就症方法   免遭问题疫苗困扰

 

近日新闻媒体关于水货九价HPV疫苗流入香港,中国游客打飞的远赴香港为其接种,且有病患者注射水货疫苗后,出现严重过敏反应的报道纷纷热议。目前就此问题疫苗事件已引起香港及中国民众的高度关注,应该提高警觉。

您可在以下的网站进一步了解报道详情:

 

什么是九价HPV疫苗? (视频)

9合1 加卫苗(Gardasil 9)疫苗可预防9种病毒株的人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)所引起的癌症与疾病。
HPV是一种可分为两大类型的病毒,一组可致癌而另一组可致疣或乳头状瘤。
现今有超过一百种HPV病毒株并且每一株都有自己指定的数字,例如HPV16或HPV52。迄今为止,能致疣的HPV病毒株不会致癌而能致癌的病毒株并不会致疣!
HPV受诱惑于并仅活于体内的鳞状上皮细胞。这类细胞可存在于皮肤表面和潮湿的粘膜表面,例如:

  1. 阴道、肛门、子宫颈、外阴部(围绕阴道外)
  2. 阴茎的内包皮和尿道
  3. 内鼻、口、喉气管(主要呼吸管)和支气管(较小的呼吸管,分支于气管)
  4. 内眼睑

因此,这些表面的感染导致疣和癌细胞的形成。
9合1加卫苗有助于防止9种HPV病毒株的感染,因而适当的命名为9合1加卫苗。疫苗里的9种HPV病毒株当中,有2种用于预防疣(HPV16和18),而其余的7种用于预防癌症(HPV16、18、31、33、45、52与58)。
关于癌症,HPV是大多数宫颈癌、阴道癌、外阴癌、肛门癌、阴茎癌和口咽癌(咽喉癌和舌癌)病例的主要致癌病毒。

疫苗针竟然能会有假货?

这种惊人的新闻难免让大众感受到不少忧虑。这种事件能够发生在香港这样的大都市,同样的也能在新加坡发生。

人们到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受假药?

首先,可以向新加坡卫生科学局 (Health Sciences Authority) 的医疗保健产品管理组 (Health Products Regulation Group) 寻求确认。

该组织确保新加坡的药品、创新疗法、医疗器械和健康相关产品受到监管,以满足安全、质量和功效方面的必要标准。其次,可以去有良好信誉的诊所就诊。

 

在新加坡DTAP诊所,我们非常关心病患者的安全与健康,因此只采用百分百真价实的疫苗。

我们的九价HPV疫苗是从美国默沙东 (MSD, or Merck & Co) 药厂引进,疫苗经过严格、专业的监管和测试,疫苗包装上面附有中英文说明,也有“MSD”字样,并且包装盒子上面会有一串防伪码以保证患者放心、安全的接受注射。

我怎么知道是否是原版的九价HPV疫苗产品


如果您在考虑进行HPV筛查或接种九价HPV疫苗,即可到我们DTAP诊所咨询。

若读者想深入了解HPV,可以参考以下资料:

 

HPV到底是什么?

人乳头瘤病毒 (HPV)是最常见的性传播感染,估计多达百分之七十的人在生命中某个时候会感染到HPVHPV具有很强的传染能力,可通过与受感染的皮肤或粘膜直接接触而传播。HPV最常感染的身体部位包括阴茎、阴道、肛门、咽喉和阴部。

目前已经确认的HPV病毒有一百余种。其中,至少有十三种与癌症有密切联系,而被称为高风险性类型。其次,十六型和十八型加起来已占子宫颈癌的百分之七十。HPV除了会导致子宫颈癌之外,还会增加外阴、阴茎、肛门和咽喉的癌症风险。

其他的HPV类型被称为低风险性类型,反而会导致疣。疣(尤其是生殖器部位)是皮肤上难看的肉色肿块,经常被描述为椰菜花的形状。

 并非所有感染HPV的人都会患上癌症或疣。事实上,绝大多数感染HPV病患者根本不会出现任何症状,并且病毒会在不知不觉的传染给其他人。这就是HPV如此流行的主要原因之一。

HPV感染有治疗方法吗?

HPV如今是没有特效药物可以清除,只能靠提高机体免疫力,产生抵抗力清除病毒达到自愈。幸运的是,这种情况经常发生。一项研究成果报告估计,高达百分之八十的HPV感染者能够在两年内自然将病毒从体内清除。然而,有些患者无法清除体内的病毒,因此可能患上癌症或生殖器疣。

 

是否有HPV筛查测试?

我们可以通过医学测试来筛查与HPV相关的子宫颈、咽喉和肛门癌变或癌前病变。通过这种方法,医生可以确定哪些病人有可能患上癌症,并在他们真正患上癌症之前对他们进行治疗。此外,还有一些测试可以在宫颈、肛门和喉咙中寻找某些高危HPV类型。患有十六型或十八型等高风险类型的患者需要较积极的观察或治疗,以防止他们患上癌症。

 

接种HPV疫苗 (Gardasil 9)

预防HPV感染最有效的方法就是接种HPV疫苗。最新的HPV疫苗可预防九价HPV (Gardasil 9),但也可交叉预防许多其他病毒类型。由于大多数与HPV相关的癌症仅由少数类型引起,因此HPV疫苗可将罹患HPV相关癌症的风险降低百分之九十以上。

 

谁适合接种人类乳头瘤病毒疫苗?

该疫苗适用于男性和女性。九岁以上的男孩和女孩都可以接种疫苗。美国食品和药物管理局最新报告报道显示,只要是四十五岁以下的男性和女性都可以从中受益。疫苗通常是在六个月内注射三次,较年轻的患者只需要注射两次。

如果你想了解更多接种HPV疫苗 (Gardasil 9), 请发邮件给我们 hello@dtapclinic.com.sg我们所有的诊所都提供HPV筛查或接种九价HPV疫苗医疗服务