What are the Cause of Foreskin Infection (Balanitis)?

What is Balanitis?

Balanitis is a common infection that affects the head of the penis and the foreskin.
It is more commonly seen in boys and men who are not circumcised.

What are the Signs & Symptoms of Balanitis?

The Common Symptoms of the infection of the Penis include a sore, itchy and smelly penis, redness and swelling, the build-up of thick fluid around your penis, and pain when peeing.

Phimosis can increase the risk of balanitis.
Some adults may also have a tight foreskin that is unable to be fully retracted. This is called phimosis and can increase the risk of balanitis.

What are the Causes of Balanitis?

Balanitis can be caused by poor hygiene.
This can lead to a build-up of Smegma is a buildup of dead skin cells, oil, and other fluids on the tip of the penis.
If left for prolonged periods it can lead to fungal and bacterial infections.

What are the Treatments of Balanitis?

You should see your doctor if you have persistent swelling, redness or irritation or if you have other accompanying symptoms like penile discharge or painful urination.
In most cases of balanitis are easily treated with good hygiene and creams and ointments recommended by your doctors.
Also, circumcision may be advised in recurrent cases of balanitis.
You can have sex during treatment if your balanitis isn’t caused by an infection.
But if it’s caused by an infection, like an STI or thrush, there’s a risk of passing this on.
Do consult any of our doctors if you are ever unsure of your symptoms so that we can do a proper examination and also to perform any lab tests if necessary.

If you wish to know more about Balanitis, please visit our Men’s clinics or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  3. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  4. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  5. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  6. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  7. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  8. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  9. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know

10 Causes of Abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps

Some women may develop lumps or bumps in the vaginal area sometime during their lives.

 
The severity of the condition, indicated by these lumps and bumps, can be classified into three categories:

  • Harmless
  • Infection or sexually-transmitted disease
  • Malignancy

 
For the most part, these lumps or bumps are harmless. The following conditions fall under this group.
 

1.) Cysts

Cysts can occur anywhere in the body. They are sacs, that range in size, filled with liquid or other substances. In the vaginal area, these cysts are usually benign and painless unless infected. It would feel like a small pebble just underneath the skin of the vulva.
 

There are two kinds of cysts:

Sebaceous Cysts

Sebaceous cysts result from the blocked hair follicles and ingrown hair when shaving or waxing. Most of these cysts do not require treatment and can be ignored if it does not cause any problems. However, some may need a small incision if they enlarge or become infected.
 

Bartholin Cysts

When the Bartholin gland (a gland in the vaginal and vulva region) becomes blocked and swells, this will cause a Bartholin cyst to form. The cyst is also harmless unless it becomes infected and turns into an abscess (a swollen area containing pus). In such cases, a trial of antibiotics usually is effective. In some cases, minor surgery may be necessary.
 

2.) Molluscum Contagiosum

A virus called pox virus causes molluscum contagiosum. It is a skin infection which causes multiple tiny bumps to spread across the area of infected skin. These harmless bumps or raised lesions are pearly white to skin-coloured and will eventually vanish after 1-2 years.
Molluscum contagiosum commonly appears in children and other parts of their bodies. However, it may pose as a sign of an STD when it occurs in adults. It is then advised for these people to get tested for other STDs.
Effective treatment options available to cure this particular type of molluscum contagiosum include:

  • Electrosurgery
  • Freezing (liquid nitrogen)
  • Topical cream

 

3.) Vestibular Papillomatosis

VP is a skin condition whereby multiple shiny small papules appear over the skin of the inner labia and vaginal opening. Similar to pearly penile papules (PPP) in men, VP is a normal variant of female genitalia; therefore treatment is not necessary.
It should be noted that Vestibular Papillomatosis is commonly mistaken for genital warts because of their similar appearance. Genital wart is a type of Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD). Therefore it is essential to have a correct diagnosis of the condition as a measure to prevent undue stress or prolonged deterioration. Our doctors are able to distinguish between both conditions.
 

4.) Fordyce Spots

Fordyce spots are enlarged oil glands materialising as small white to yellow lumps over the inner labia. These spots can also appear on the lining of the mouth and occasionally on the penis in men. They are completely painless and harmless.
The condition where lumps and bumps associated with an infection is folliculitis. Other conditions that are STD-related include genital warts, syphilis and herpes.
 

What are some of the causes of Bleeding after Sex (Post Coital Bleeding)?

5. Folliculitis

Folliculitis is the skin condition where the hair follicles in the labia region become inflamed and infected, causing tender red spots containing pus to surface. The hair follicles become inflamed from bacterial, fungal or even viral infection (e.g. herpes), due to situations that irritate ingrown hair, like shaving or waxing. The treatment is dependent on the type of infection.
 

6. Genital Warts

Genital wart is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), usually, type 6 and 11. Genital warts present as small, skin-coloured cauliflower-like bumps that can either develop into one single lump or more commonly into multiple lumps. Genital warts are highly contagious through skin-to-skin contact.
Depending on the individual, the HPV warts may go away, remain present or spread and increase in amount. Even without developing these warts, the individual can still be a carrier of the HPV virus.
There are HPV vaccinations now available to protect you from certain strains of HPV including type 6 and 11.
(The new Gardasil 9 HPV Vaccination is available in all our clinics in Singapore and Malaysia)
 

7. Syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually-transmitted disease that is caused by a bacterial infection. From this, a chancre, a painless sore, will appear in the genital or mouth area. The sore can eventually go away untreated in a few weeks. However, this will lead to the development of severe complications because the infection remains.
Please click here to find out more about syphilis, including treatment options.
 

8. Genital Herpes

Genital herpes is a contagious sexually-transmitted disease appearing as multiple painful blisters or ulcers clustered in the genital area. The infection can spread quickly to sexual partners, even with the use of condoms.
Although there is currently no cure for the infection, there are different treatments, like antiviral medications, to prevent and control recurring outbreaks of blisters.
 

Lumps and bumps can also be a malignant growth, and potentially a sign of cancer.

 

9. Vaginal Cancer

Vaginal or vulvar cancer can be presented as a lump or bump in the vaginal region. Besides the lumps, this type of cancer is also accompanied by other symptoms, including:

  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Pain during intercourse

In such cases, a pelvic examination and pap smear are done to look for any red flags. A pelvic examination and a pap smear test is done to check for signs of early changes and cancer.
If the results are positive, the doctor will then discuss the next steps for treatment.
 

10. Vaginal Melanoma

Melanoma is a type of skin cancer arising from pigmented cells. 2% of melanoma are diagnosed in the vagina or vulva. This cancer is more prevalent in women older than 50.
Vaginal melanoma appears as a pigmented lump in the vaginal area. Other non-specific symptoms include itching, bleeding and pain.
 
If you are experiencing Abnormal Vaginal Lumps & Bumps, it is highly recommended to visit our female doctors at our Women Clinics as soon as possible.
 
Take Care!

Other Interesting Reads:

    1. What You Need To Know about HPV, Cervical Cancer, Pap Smear & HPV Vaccination
    2. 11 Causes of Dyspareunia (Pain During Intercourse)
    3. What is HPV Vaccination (Gardasil 9)
    4. 10 Causes of abnormal Vaginal Lumps and Bumps
    5. An Overview of Gonorrhoea
    6. What is the Treatment for Cold Sores? What causes Cold Sores?

 
 
 

7 Testosterone Boosting Foods that You Can Find in the Supermarket

Testosterone. Testosterone. Testosterone.

Testosterone is produced by the gonads (by the Leydig cells in testes in men and by the ovaries in women). Present in much greater levels in men than women, testosterone initiates the development of the male internal and external reproductive organs during foetal development and is essential for the production of sperm in adult life. This hormone also signals your body to make new blood cells, ensures that muscles and bones stay strong during and after puberty and enhances libido (sex drive) both in men and women.
Read more:

#1 Oysters

Oysters are well-known aphrodisiacs.
It’s also a good source of zinc.
Zinc helps to boost your testosterone naturally. Yes, Zinc is a natural Testosterone Booster.

via GIPHY

#2 Pomegranate

This superfood has a lot of health benefits.
Other than boosting testosterone, it also helps reduce Blood Pressure, improve circulation and improve sperm quality.
It may not be cheap but it’s worth it.

via GIPHY

#3 Tuna

Tuna is a good source of protein.
On top of that, it is also a great source of vitamin D which helps to boost testosterone naturally.
Other than Tuna, other deep-sea fish like Salmon and mackerel also are good sources of Vitamin D.

via GIPHY

#4 Egg yolks

Egg yolks may have gotten a bad rep for cholesterol. However, the cholesterol from egg yolk is a precursor to testosterone in our body. So it’s very good to boost testosterone.
However, do take it in moderation as you wouldn’t want to take in too much cholesterol

via GIPHY

#5 Shellfish

Also notorious for increasing blood cholesterol, shellfish and crustaceans have a high level of zinc.
The Alaskan king crab has one of the highest: just 3 ounces of it contains 43% of your daily zinc requirement.
Once again, please take in moderation as too much may increase your cholesterol levels.

via GIPHY

#6 Beef

Different parts and cuts of beef have different benefits for Testosterone.
Beef liver is high in Vitamin D while Chuck Roast and Ground beef are high in zinc.
However, too much beef may increase cholesterol levels and increase the risk for colon cancer.

via GIPHY

#7 Milk

Milk is a good source of Vitamin D. It’s also a good source of protein and calcium.
Whatever food that you choose to take on a regular basis, just remember to take them in moderation.
Supplement with a healthy active lifestyle and do speak to your local doctor to see if what you are doing is enough.

via GIPHY
That’s All Folks!
Find out about Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome or Low Testosterone and our other Men Clinic Services


Other Read

  1. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  2. Things to do to maintain your penis health
  3. The Rise in Male Infertility: What You Need to Know
  4. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  5. What are the Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge?
  6. Does Size Matters: Micropenis

9合1 加卫苗(Gardasil 9)疫苗

9合1 加卫苗(Gardasil 9)疫苗可预防9种病毒株的人类乳头瘤病毒(HPV)所引起的癌症与疾病。
HPV是一种可分为两大类型的病毒,一组可致癌而另一组可致疣或乳头状瘤。
现今有超过一百种HPV病毒株并且每一株都有自己指定的数字,例如HPV16或HPV52。迄今为止,能致疣的HPV病毒株不会致癌而能致癌的病毒株并不会致疣!
HPV受诱惑于并仅活于体内的鳞状上皮细胞。这类细胞可存在于皮肤表面和潮湿的粘膜表面,例如:

  1. 阴道、肛门、子宫颈、外阴部(围绕阴道外)
  2. 阴茎的内包皮和尿道
  3. 内鼻、口、喉气管(主要呼吸管)和支气管(较小的呼吸管,分支于气管)
  4. 内眼睑

因此,这些表面的感染导致疣和癌细胞的形成。
9合1加卫苗有助于防止9种HPV病毒株的感染,因而适当的命名为9合1加卫苗。疫苗里的9种HPV病毒株当中,有2种用于预防疣(HPV16和18),而其余的7种用于预防癌症(HPV16、18、31、33、45、52与58)。
关于癌症,HPV是大多数宫颈癌、阴道癌、外阴癌、肛门癌、阴茎癌和口咽癌(咽喉癌和舌癌)病例的主要致癌病毒。

了解更多: 水货九价hpv疫苗-到底能够采取什么措施来避免接受

这个疫苗与旧款疫苗希瑞适(卉妍康 Cervarix)和4合1加卫苗(Gardasil 4)有什么区别?

与4合1加卫苗相比,9合1加卫苗对于HPV可提供更广泛的保护,它不仅能预防4合1加卫苗所预防的4种病毒株,它还能预防另外5种高危型的病毒株:HPV31、33、45、52合58。这几种病毒株加起来就已经覆盖了能导致百分之九十的宫颈癌病例的病毒株。
两种加卫苗都可预防致癌的HPV16、18,以及致疣的HPV6与11。
另一方面,希瑞适只针最常致癌的HPV16与18,而且并不能预防疣。

男女性都能接种9合1加卫苗吗?

是的,男女行都能接种9合1加卫苗,反观,希瑞适只适用于女性。

适合接种9合1加卫苗的最小年龄是?

9合1加卫苗可接种的最小年龄是9岁。在发生任何HPV接触之前接种疫苗是最有效的。

对女性而言,9合1加卫苗有多重要?

宫颈癌是新加坡15-44岁女性因癌症死亡的第三大主要原因,每月有6名妇女因宫劲癌而死。
通过疫苗接种可轻易预防宫颈癌,因此在女性当中受到了极大的推荐。
请记住,接种疫苗预防宫颈癌、阴道癌、外阴癌、肛门癌或口咽癌并不是百分之一百的有效的,但至少它现今提供了最好的预防机会,更何况,这些癌症还有其他致癌的HPV病毒株和其他致病因素。

对男性而言,9合1加卫苗又是如何重要?

首先,我们将根据不同的性行为进行两大分类:进行穿插性肛门性交的男性和不进行该行为的男性。
进行穿插性肛门性交并是接受一方的男性一般患上HPV相关肛门癌的风险较高,因HPV将贮藏于肛门粘膜表面。
无论往后的性取向如何,男孩或年轻男性进行早期接种疫苗都有助于预防肛门癌。与女性不同的是,进行肛门性交的男性目前尚无类似宫颈抹片实验(PAP Smear)这类受批准的筛查检测方案可实行。
不接受肛门性交的男性依然可从接种疫苗中受益。该疫苗可降低其口腔癌和阴茎癌的风险,因为在进行阴道性交或口交期间HPV可贮存于阴茎上,同样地,HPV也可在口交时贮存于口腔内。
许多异性恋男人可能会问:“HPV一般常导致宫颈癌,似乎更是个女性的问题而非是男性的。”仔细想想,HPV相关癌症对于女性是致命的,只要接种疫苗的男性人数越多,免疫人群就越大,从而降低把HPV传播给女性的风险。这被称为”“群体免疫力”。
相反,随着更多的女性接种疫苗,更多的男性就被赋予“群体免疫力”的保护,HPV流行率下降从而降低了感染HPV相关疾病的风险。
因此,我们也应该鼓励男性接种9合1加卫苗以降低HPV相关癌症和疣的总体风险和发生率。以澳洲为例,HPV疫苗接种已被纳入其国家免疫计划赞助的以学校为基础的举措,广泛接种12至13岁的男孩。

疫苗的使用方式和计量方案是什么?

医师将在您的胳膊、大腿或臀部肌肉上进行9合1加卫苗注射。
计量方案一共是3剂,在理想情况下,这3剂应在6个月内分散注射,例如:如果您今天已注射了第一剂,那么您的第二剂量将在2个月后注射,而第三剂将在第一剂的6个月后。
即使您忘记或延迟您的后续剂量,只要您在12个月以内完成所有3次剂量注射仍然可以实现有效的免疫力。

注射了9合1加卫苗后女性还需要进行宫颈抹片检查(PAP Smear)吗?

是的。虽然9合1加卫苗比旧款疫苗更覆盖了更多的HPV病毒株,但它仍然不能覆盖所有致癌的病毒株,而这其中就有7种。请记住,已知晓能导致癌症的HPV病毒株有15种,或许还有更多是我们还不知道的呢!
宫颈抹片检查应至少每三年进行一次,若您的检验异常,您的医师可能会建议您每6-12个月复查一次以便进行更密切的监测。
若您有意注射HPV疫苗或想了解更多相关信息,请联系我们在新加坡与马来西亚的诊所。
新加坡诊所
马来西亚诊所

What is HIV PrEP & Event-Driven Based HIV PrEP Strategy?

What is HIV PrEP?

HIV PrEP is an option for HIV prevention and involves taking medication that can reduce the risk of HIV transmission by up to 95% if taken properly.
Most of the time, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis, or HIV PrEP for short is taken as a daily tablet and needs to be taken consistently to provide the greatest level of protection.
HIV PrEP is recommended for at-risk groups, including men-who-have-sex-with-men, patients who have a known partner who is living with HIV (PLHIV), or those with multiple partners of unknown HIV status.

What is the difference between HIV PEP (HIV Post Exposure Prophylaxis) & HIV PrEP?

HIV PrEP should not be mistaken for HIV PEP or HIV Post Exposure Prophylaxis.

HIV PEP is for any individual who is at risk of HIV infection after an HIV exposed to HIV to take HIV medicines for a month to reduce his or her chances of HIV infection.

HIV Pre Exposure prophylaxis and HIV Post Exposure Prophylaxis do not 100% reduce your chances of HIV infection, nor prevent you from being infected with other Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) besides HIV.

HIV PEP as an HIV prevention strategy was first developed for healthcare workers, who are being exposed to contaminated blood or needles prick. It has since expanded to other HIV high-risk activities such as sexual exposure and intravenous drugs used.

Another development of HIV prevention is by using HIV Pre Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) as a strategy to reduce the chances of HIV infection even before any potential HIV exposure.

What is Event Driven Based HIV PrEP Strategy?

Some people may find that taking a daily table is just not suitable for them.
If this is the case, they may consider an option called Event-Based Dosing, or EBD for short.
This entails taking tablets one day before the exposure, the days of exposure, and for one day after the last exposure.
It is a much shorter course of tablets than regular HIV PrEP, and can still provide a high level of protection from HIV, with up to 85% risk reduction.
HIV PrEP is most effective when used in combination with other protective strategies such as condoms and regular STD screening.

Descovy As New HIV Medication For HIV PrEP

Descovy (brand name) is a FDA approved new drug combination of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) + emtricitabine for use as HIV PrEP, which has shown to be equally effective in preventing HIV infection whilst touting an improved safety profile for renal and bone toxicity.

Descovy is currently available in all Dr Tan & Partners (DTAP clinics) in Singapore. It is a prescription only medication and must be prescribed by a doctor. Speak to our doctors for more information about Descovy and find out if a HIV-1 treatment that contains Descovy is right for you.

If you are interested in learning more about HIV PrEP or EBD, please come down to our any of our clinics to speak to our doctors, and see if these options are suitable for you. You can learn more about the What is HIV PrEP or HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis.
We can advise you in more detail on the indications, dosage and timing, and potential side effects of the medications, as well as how to follow up with appropriate HIV Testing and STD testing.
Take Care!


Other Reads:

  1. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  2. The HIV Proviral DNA Test can be done 10 days post exposure.
  3. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  4. HPV Infection & HPV Vaccination for Men who have sex with Men
  5. STD Risk for Receptive Unprotected Anal Sex in Men
  6. Low HIV Risk Doesn’t Mean No HIV Risk
  7. HIV PrEP for Travel – How You Need to Know
  8. An Overview on STD from an STD Doctor
  9. Everything You Need to Know about Herpes Simplex Virus
  10. How Do I Treat Oral Herpes (Cold Sores)
  11. Syphilis Symptoms – Painless Sore & Ulcers
  12. HIV Symptoms – What You Need to Know
  13. 10 Common HIV related Opportunistic Infections

How is the Adult Circumcision (Foreskin Removal) Procedure Done?

What is Male Circumcision?

Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the penis.

Why Do Some Some Adults Undergo Circumcision?

Circumcision for adults is a medical treatment option for patients with recurrent foreskin infections, phimosis (tight foreskin opening), and for religious reasons. Some choose to do it for aesthetic reasons. 

How is Circumcision Done?

In our clinics, we perform circumcision using the Shang Ring Method. A numbing cream will be applied to the foreskin and left for at least 30 minutes.
Once the skin is numb, the Shang Ring will be applied. The size of the ring will be measured prior to the procedure.
The foreskin will be clamped in between the inner and outer ring.
The excess skin will then be removed by surgical scissors. The ring will be left in place for one to two weeks.
After surgery, the patient will be prescribed oral painkillers and antibiotics.

What do you need to beware of After the circumcision procedure?

With the Shang Ring method, there is a very low risk of bleeding and infection.
Usually, the patient may experience some pain or discomfort during nocturnal or morning erections.
You can apply a frozen bag of peas on the penis when an erection occurs and if it causes a lot of pain.
You are advised to avoid any activities that may cause pressure or friction at the wound site for 2 weeks like strenuous physical activities or sexual intercourse.
It is advisable to wear brief or underwear to hold the penis up.
Usually, after 4 to 6 weeks, you can start being sexually active.
Also, a medical certificate is usually given for 1 to 2 weeks to recover.
That is everything there is to Adult Circumcision.

Should you require further information about the circumcision for the adult, please visit drop us an email at  hello@dtapclinic.com.

Take Care!


Other Read

  1. Weak Erection? Erectile Dysfunction? How to Improve Erection with Pills
  2. Things to do to maintain your penis health
  3. Weak Erection: Does Penis Size Matters?
  4. Do I Have HIV Rash? Or Are They Other STD-Related Rashes?
  5. What are the Causes of Abnormal Penile Discharge?

Nose Cancer and Nose Cancer Screening

Nose Cancer and Nose Cancer Screening

What is Nose Cancer (Nasopharyngeal carcinoma)?

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer that arises from the back of the nasal cavity. It is more common in Asia than in Western countries.
 

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Nose Cancer?

What to look out for?
Common presenting complaints include:
• Block nose
• Headache
• Double vision
• Neck lumps and bumps
• Nosebleed
• Blood stained saliva
• Hearing loss
 
NPC can behave like a silent killer. One can be asymptomatic or showing no symptoms before experiencing symptoms.
Over time, the tumour can grow, ulcerate and invade into nearby structures leading to nerve involvement and other symptoms as stated above.
A tumour can also spread to distant spread to other parts of the body.

What are the risk factors for Nose Cancer?

Age and Gender
It is a cancer that is more common in males.
There is also a bimodal age presentation where occurrence peaks in younger and older adults.
Infective
Epstein – Barr virus (EBV) infection
The strong association between EBV infection and NPC is evident by anti-EBV antibody in the blood, an increased amount of EBV DNA levels in NPC tumour cells.
This is why EBV antibodies are used in the clinical setting for the screening of Nose cancer.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection
The role of HPV in NPC is less clear-cut in comparison to EBV in NPC but studies have shown that there might be an association with Nose Cancer.
Lifestyle
Smoking
There is postulation that smoking contributes to risks of NPC by causing reactivation of EBV.
Even though there might not be sufficient evidence, smoking itself does cause many other diseases.
Dietary practice

  • Consuming preserved food which contains a high level of nitrosamines like salted fish, bacterial mutagens and EBV-reactivating substances is another risk of NPC.
  • Some traditional Chinese medical herbs intake can lead to reactivation of EBV. 

Genetic Susceptibility
NPC has been associated with certain genetic predisposition and risks of NPC is increased in patients with first-degree relatives with NPC.

Nose Cancer Screening

History and Physical Examination.
A thin camera also known as a flexible naso-endoscopy is useful for examination of the back of the nasal cavity and if needed, a tissue biopsy sample to be obtained at the same setting.
Future Tests include:
Blood Tests
A simple non-fasting screening blood test can be done to aid the detection of NPC.
Given the close association between EBV and NPC, laboratory blood tests like EBV viral DNA and EBV IgA serology tests can be performed in the screening of NPC for patients belonging in high risks groups.
Screening tests are recommended for patients who fall under the high risks group eg, those with positive family history.
However, studies have also shown that early NPC being an indolent killer due to its relatively asymptomatic nature, has a higher 5-year survival rate when detected at an early stage. (see reference below)
In addition, these tests can help to prognosticate treatment response and future recurrence of the same disease in patients diagnosed with NPC.
Radiological
Other imaging studies include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) might be useful.

 

Treatment for Nose Cancer

Treatment options include radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery. Combined therapy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy together with surgery might be considered based on the location and extent of the lesion.
Nose Cancer Screening is available in our Dr Tan & Partners @Raffles Place in Singapore.
If you are interested in this service and wish to find out more, please call +65 6962 7144 or visit our clinic at our Raffles Place Branch or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com


Reference:
1 ) Chan, K. C. A., Woo, J. K. S., King, A., Zee, B. C. Y., Lam, W. K. J., Chan, S. L., … Lo, Y. M. D. (2017). Analysis of Plasma Epstein–Barr Virus DNA to screen for nasopharyngeal cancer. New England Journal of Medicine,378(10), 973-973. doi:10.1056/nejmx180004
 

5 Objects Found In Ear Where It Should Not Belong!

#1 Impacted Earwax

The production of ear wax can be excessive in some people. This can happen when water gets trapped in the ear, or when the ear is injured or occurs for no particularly obvious reason.

#2 Small insects

A myriad of insects may reside temporarily in the external auditory canal.  Amongst all, small cockroaches are most commonly found in the ear canal as they prefer the warm, dark environment. A crawling and moving insect can be uncomfortable and may risk injuring the inner ear and the eardrum. Mineral oil is used to kill the insects before one attempting to remove it.

#3 Cotton bud

It is a common routine for some to attempt cleaning their ears using cotton buds. This can actually push the wax deeper into the ear instead of getting it out. As a consequence, leading to ear wax impaction, resulting to discomfort and decreased in hearing ability. Also, repetitive friction may cause skin tear in the ear causing bacteria to set in. This might result in an ear infection.

#4 Beads and plastic toys

This occurs in toddlers and children who place items in their ears out of curiosity.

via GIPHY

#5 Button Batteries

Button batteries can be found in toy or hearing aids. They can cause destruction to the ear canal because of electrical currents and pressure exerted by the battery in the small ear canal. There have been reports of injury to the eardrum and skin of the ear canal.

via GIPHY

Looking after your ears (Water Precaution)

It is imperative to keep water out of the ears and keeping them dry.  Water can be a vehicle for germs and bacteria growth when present in the ear canal. Interestingly, the worst water is bath water; even soap or shampoo water can potentially carry a large number of germs.
It is advisable for the below products when swimming or washing head and hair:

  • Cotton wool plug covered in Vaseline
  • Earplugs during swimming
  • Shower cap

via GIPHY
 

Tips for good ear care and prevention of ear infection

  • Keep the ears dry especially bathing or swimming.
  • Earplugs at all time during swimming. Earplugs need to be regularly cleaned and changed.
  • Keep ears dry after swimming
  • Dry the ears using a dry towel.
  • Avoid using cotton buds or sticking metal ear pick into your ears.
  • Regular cleaning and nightly removal of hearing aid
  • Clean the ears regularly by a doctor if you have excessive earwax

Who should be more concerned?
Preventive interventions should be considered in people with a recurrent ear infection or patients with a skin condition involving the ear.

Have You Heard of Ear Toliet?

Ear Toliet Procedure is using Instrumentation and Microsuction to Remove Ear Wax

While microsuction and instrumentation carries some inherent risks, this is one of the safest wax clearing procedure when used with direct visualization by the medical practitioner.
This enables the medical practitioner to clean the ear canal with greater precision and reduced patient discomfort whilst concurrently enabling the medical practitioner to inspect the ear canal and tympanic membrane are in detail.
As an ancillary benefit, this method allows 2-handed working which further minimizes the risks of human error.
Due to the increased precision and stability, microsuction is often used in situations where ear irrigation is inappropriate or for patients with a deficiency in the ear drum (eg hole in the ear) or having previous ear surgeries.

  • Patients with an ear infection will benefit as ear irrigation will not be safe in this group of patients
  • Patient with build- up of ear wax causing symptoms
  • Patient with anatomical variations of the ear canal
  • Patient wearing hearing aids
  • Children who able to understand instructions and willing to cooperate

The Ear Toliet (Ear Wax Removal) Procedure is only available in our Dr Tan & Partners @Raffles Place in Singapore.
If you are interested in this service and wish to find out more, please call +65 6962 7144 or visit our clinic at our Raffles Place Branch or drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com

What Causes Male Pattern Hair Loss (Androgenic Alopecia)

What is Male Pattern Hair Loss (Androgenic Alopecia)?

It is a very common form of hair loss which can affect up to 50% of men by age 50. It is usually inherited (meaning that your father or mother is likely to have it as well). It can start as early as after puberty in some cases.

What are the causes of Male Pattern Hair Loss (Androgenic Alopecia)?

In most cases, it is due to the genes you inherited from either your father or mother or both. Typically, if you are affected by the condition, the hair follicles start to shrink with time under the influence of male hormones.

and then what happens?

As the condition progress, the hair thickness also starts to become thinner and over time, the hair is lost.
In most cases, it starts with the recession of the hairline around the temples and also around the forehead area. Then hair around the top of the head (the crown) also becomes less. In time, the areas of baldness will join together. However, hair at the back of the head is usually not affected in this condition.
See other types of Hair Loss Conditions

Is male pattern hair loss only a cosmetic concern?

No. There are studies that show a link between those affected by the condition to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease (i.e. hypertension, heart attacks, strokes)
Also, it is associated with benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) which is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate, which can cause symptoms like, an increase in frequency to pass urine, waking up multiple times at night to pass urine and as a result affect the quality of your sleep.
In addition, it has been found in studies that men who use anabolic steroids are also associated with increased risk of the condition. Similarly, persons on testosterone replacement therapy for hypogonadism are at increased risk of the condition as well.
Some studies also found that increased levels of DHEA (another sex hormone ) or low levels of SHBG (sex hormone binding globulin) which in turn means that there is more free man hormones that your body can use are also associated with the condition as well.
There are also studies to show that there is a link between the condition and prostate cancer. A large Australian study suggests that loss of hair at the top of the head at age 40 may be an early marker of prostate cancer.

What are the available treatments for Male Pattern Hair Loss (Androgenic Alopecia)?

Medical Treatment for Male Pattern Hair Loss (Andorgenic Alopecia)

1. Topical Solution for Hair Loss

This Hair loss treatment works by slowing the shrinkage of the hair follicles
The Advantage of using  Topical Solution for Hair Loss

  • Simple to use
  • Apply on hair daily up to twice a day

The Disadvantage of using  Topical Solution for Hair Loss

  • Takes up to 6 months to notice the effect
  • Need to use it on a permanent basis as hair loss resumes after stopping
2. Oral Medication for Hair Loss

This Hair loss Treatment works by blocking the conversion of male hormones to DHT which causes shrinkage of the hair follicles
The Advantage of using Oral Medication for Hair Loss

  • Unlike lotion which only slows the shrinkage of hair follicles, it has been suggested that medication is able to reverse the shrinkage of hair follicles

The Disadvantage of using  Oral Medication for Hair Loss

  • In about 1-2% of men who take the medication, they reported a decrease in sex drive or erectile dysfunction.
  • A decrease in PSA levels which may cause an underestimation of risk of prostate cancer
  • Takes up to 6 months to notice effects
  • Need to use it on a permanent basis as hair loss resumes after stopping
3.) Hair Transplant for Hair Loss

Strips of hair from the back of your head are removed and then individually transplanted to the area of hair loss.
The Advantage of Hair Transplant

  • Can notice effect around 3 months

The Disadvantage of Hair Transplant

  • Downtime (recovery time after hair transplant)
  • Can take up to few hours for the procedure depending on the area that needs to be transplanted
  • Expensive (Average cost > $15,000)
  • Failure of the hair grafts may occur
4.) Regenera Activa for Hair Loss


Similar to hair transplant, hair from the back of the head is removed and then using a specialised machine, hair follicular units are harvested and then injected into the area of hair loss.
The Advantage of Regenera Activa

  • It has been approved by FDA for medical treatment
  • Much smaller area of hair (3 x 2.5 mm) needed to be removed from the back of the head compared to hair transplant
  • Can notice effect around 3 months
  • Faster than hair transplant procedure (generally takes about 30 mins)
  • No downtime
  • Cheaper than hair transplant
  • Last for 18 months to 24 months depending on individuals

Learn more about Regenera Activa Hair Loss Treatment.
Regenera Activa Male Pattern Hair Loss is only available in the following 4 Branches:

  • Dr Tan & Partners @Novena   (+65 6397 2095)
  • Dr Tan & Partners @DUO Galleria (+65 6976 5023)
  • Dr Tan & Partners @Siglap (+65 6962 2144)
  • Dr Tan & Partners @Holland V (+65 6235 1339)

If you think you may have male pattern hair loss, please speak to any of our friendly doctors at any of our clinics to discuss further, or Drop us an email at hello@dtapclinic.com

Phimosis – Unusually Tight Foreskin (Video)

How Do I Know If I Have Phimosis (Tight Foreskin)?

Phimosis is a condition of unusually tight foreskin that cannot be drawn back from the head of the penis.
It is a constriction of the opening of the foreskin that – it can’t be drawn back over the tip of the penis.
A simple way to find out is just to try to pull your foreskin all the way back until you see the whole head of the penis.
If you cannot do this or if it hurts to do this, you likely suffer from phimosis (tight foreskin).

How Severe are My Phimosis (Tight Foreskin) Condition?

Score 1: Full retraction of the foreskin, tight behind the glans.
Score 2: Partial exposure of glans, prepuce (not congenital adhesions) limiting factor.
Score 3: Partial retraction, meatus just visible.
Score 4: Slight retraction, but some distance between tip and glans, i.e. neither meatus nor glans can be exposed. ☑
Score 5: Absolutely no retraction of the foreskin. ☑

What are the Risk Factors of Phimosis (Tight Foreskin)?

The tightness of the foreskin may interfere with the normal passage of urine.
In severe cases, this may cause retention of urine and urine infection. It also increases the risk of infections of the foreskin and head of the penis.
This problem is especially severe in people with Diabetes.
Also, it may cause pain during sex. If you have phimosis using a condom during sexual intercourse may make the penis more comfortable.

What are the Possible Treatments of Phimosis (Tight Foreskin)?

Your doctor may give you antibiotics if the swabs did showed signs of infection, or may give you a cream for application.
Sometimes, phimosis can be treated simply by stretching the foreskin. Sometimes, doctors will prescribe a cream to help the foreskin stretch.
If the problem is severe and stretching does not help or if the foreskin is badly scarred, the patient may need a circumcision.
Circumcision for adults is a medical treatment option for patients with recurrent foreskin infections, phimosis (tight foreskin opening), and for religious reasons.

If you think you may be suffering from phimosis, see our doctors for a consultation.