Vaginal infections may give rise to pain during intercourse as the vaginal canal and the cervix (entrance to the womb) may be inflamed. This is often accompanied by other symptoms of infection such as abnormal vaginal discharge.
Sometimes, structural abnormalities affecting the womb or pelvis may give rise to a deeper pain. This may occur in conditions where there is abnormal scar tissue in the pelvis (known as adhesions) such as previous infections, or endometriosis. Uterine fibroids or the positioning of the uterus may also cause pain during intercourse.
Other less common, specific conditions affecting the external genitalia or the vulva may result in pain provoked by any form of touch or pressure, including during sexual intercourse.
Urine Tract Infection
Urine tract infections affecting the bladder may manifest as pain during intercourse but would be accompanied by other symptoms such as painful urination or foul-smelling urine.
Vaginismus is a specific condition in which pain on attempted penetration occurs due to involuntary pelvic muscle spasms.